Fake and Synthetic Minerals; A Way to Sustain the Gem Supply

  • Ayten Calik
  • Oznur KaracaEmail author
  • Cumali Yasar
  • Emin U. Ulugergerli
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 31)


High demand for some rare gems creates pressure on the production line and some gems are consumed quickly in some countries. In order to sustain the gem supply to the most demanding markets, man-made minerals may be considered as an alternative to expensive genuine ones. Non-genuine precious and semiprecious stones can be found as enhanced, reproduced, and counterfeited gems. The former is extremely common among precious gems, while the last one is usually for semiprecious stones. Enhancement methods transform (or recycle) very low-quality (waste) gems into unique jewelry. Fabricated crystals are obtained (or recycled) from different or even irrelevant materials. The identification of such materials is getting harder due to continuous improvement in production technologies. Governing bodies have begun to issue regulations to their members so that misleading information given in retail can be reduced. In addition to limited regulation and enforcement, the buyers will also need some sort of education provided by trustworthy foundations such as reputable labs, mineral museums, and academic institutions. Although the internet provides a vast amount of information about fake minerals, most of which is also fictitious, especially, earth science-related museums should have a special duty in this regard and educate the public through hands-on experiments.


Gem supply Synthetic minerals Sustainability Gemologists E-commerce 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayten Calik
    • 1
  • Oznur Karaca
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cumali Yasar
    • 1
  • Emin U. Ulugergerli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological EngineeringÇanakkale Onsekiz Mart UniversityÇanakkaleTurkey

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