A Proposed Multi-barrier Option for Removing Iron and Microbial Contamination from Yenagoa Borehole Waters

  • Elechi Okoh
  • Bernard OruabenaEmail author
  • Charles O. Amgbari
  • Ebitei Sintei Nelson
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 31)


The selection of a suitable water treatment method, especially for rural water supply is fundamental to household water treatment and quite challenging because there is rarely any single solution. The selection process must, therefore, be based on a detailed analysis of collected water samples and practical experience. The Yenagoa area, South–South Nigeria is noted to have poor groundwater quality due to objectionable high concentration of certain offensive groundwater parameters and encroachment of saltwater or brackish water into the freshwater aquifers. The results were taken from the web on the quality analysis of groundwater samples from various locations in and around Yenagoa and evaluated with reference to WHO standards for drinking water indicate that the concentrations of the chemical constituents like iron, phosphate and manganese varied spatially from location to location. Based on this analysis, groundwater in Yenagoa is generally unfit for drinking and other household uses and requires treatment for these parameters to make it portable, and then meet the WHO’s standards for household waters. The choice and cost of the probable technologies that could be adapted by the residents to treat their household water in order to eliminate waterborne diseases become an issue because many technologies available to large systems may be too expensive or complicated for small household systems to even consider. In this work, a recommendation has been given to a system that explores innovative technologies, affordable and is sustainable. The option considers the multi-barrier low-cost treatment technology approach as suitable for borehole water in Yenagoa and environs. This work is not intended to be a rigorous analysis of all the methods available but will be offered as an “aide memoire” to owners that are looking for rapid, realistic results from the available water treatment technologies.


Borehole Water vendors Treatments Water quality Potable water Brackish water 


  1. Abam TKS (2001) Regional hydrological research perspective in the Niger Delta. Afr Water J Hydrol Sci 46(1)Google Scholar
  2. Agbalagba, OE, OH Agbalagba, CP Ononugbo, Alao AA (2011) Investigation into the physico-chemical properties and hydrochemical processes of groundwater from commercial boreholes in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 5(7): 473–482Google Scholar
  3. Agency, Environmental Protection (2011) Water treatment manual on disinfection.
  4. Allen JR (1965) Coastal geomorphology of the Eastern Nigerian beach ridges and vegetated tidal flats. Geol Min Mijabonw 44:2–20Google Scholar
  5. Amangabara GT, Ejenma E (2012) Groundwater quality assessment of Yenagoa and between 2010 and 2011. Resour Environ 2(2): 20–29Google Scholar
  6. Brandhagen DJ, Fairbanks VF, Baldus W (2002) Recognition and management of hereditary hemochromatosis. Am Fam Physician 65(5). Mayo Medical School, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  7. CAWST (2009) Biosand filter manual design, construction, installation, operation and maintenance. Calgary, Alberta, T2A 6K4, Canada.
  8. Chittaranjan Ray, Ravi Jain (2011) Drinking water treatment: focusing on appropriate technology and sustainability. Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Collin C (2009) Biosand filtration of high turbidity water: modified filter design and safe filtrate storage. MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  10. Clasen TF (2008) World health organization guidelines for drinking-water quality scaling up household water treatment: looking back, seeing forward, World Health Organization. WHO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Dike HO, John DN, Atulegwu PU, Joseph IN, Tochi EE (2012) Correlates in groundwater quality parameters and textural classes of soils in a peri-industrial district of the Nigerian Delta Region. J Environ Earth Sci 2(3)Google Scholar
  12. Efe SI, Ogban FE, Horsfall MJ, Akporhonor EE (2005) Seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics in water resources quality in western Niger Delta Region Nigeria. J Appl Sci Environ Mgt 9(1):191–195Google Scholar
  13. Eniola KI, Obafemi DY, Awe SF, Yusuf II, Falaiye OA, Olowe AO (2007) Effects of containers and storage conditions on bacteriological quality of borehole water. Niger J Micro-biology 21:1578–1585Google Scholar
  14. Flentje ME, Hager DG (1964) Advances in taste and odor removal with granular—carbon filters. Water Sew Works 3(76)Google Scholar
  15. Gray NF (1996) Drinking water quality, problems and solutions. Wiley Educational, GloucesterGoogle Scholar
  16. Ibekwe AM, Murinda SE, Graves AK (2011) Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8(12): 4460–4476Google Scholar
  17. Joyce R (1964) Feasibility study of granular activated carbon adsorption for waste water renovation. US Public Health Service, Washington D.C. Publ. no. 999WP-12Google Scholar
  18. Koinyan AA, Nwankwoala HO, Eludoyin OS (2013) Water resources utilization in Yenagoa, Central Niger Delta: environmental and health implications. Int J Water Resour Environ Eng 5(4):177–186Google Scholar
  19. LeChevallier MW, Au K-K (2004) Water treatment and pathogen control: process efficiency in achieving safe drinking water. Essex, United Kingdom.
  20. Matsui Y, Knappe DRU, Takagi R (2002) Pesticide adsorption by granular activated carbon adsorbers: effect of natural organic matter preloading on. Environ Sci Technol 36:3426–3431Google Scholar
  21. Ministry of Health (2007) Treatment options for small drinking-water supplies. Ministry of Health, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  22. Nath KJ, Bloomfield S, Jones M (2006) Household water storage, handling and point-of-use treatment: a review commissioned by the International Forum of Home Hygiene.
  23. NIS 554: (2007) Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Abuja, Nigeria: Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON)Google Scholar
  24. Nwankwoala HO, Amadi AN, Oborie E, Ushie FA (2014) Hydrochemical factors and correlation analysis in groundwater quality in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Appl Ecol Environ Sci 2(4):100–105Google Scholar
  25. Nwankwoala HO, Oborie E (2014) Geo-technical investigation and characterization of sub-soils in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Central Niger Delta, Nigeria. Civil Environ Res 6(7): 75–84Google Scholar
  26. Nwankwoala HO, Ngah SA (2014) Ground water resources of the Niger Delta: quality implications and management considerations. Int J Water Resour Environ Eng 6(5):155–163Google Scholar
  27. Okagbue CO (1989) Geotechnical and environmental problems of the Niger Delta. Bull Eng Geol Environ 40(1):112–126 Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  28. Okiongbo KS, Douglas R (2013) Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of ground water quality in Yenagoa City and environs, Southern Nigeria. Ife J Sci 15(2):209–222Google Scholar
  29. Okiongbo KS, Akpofure E, Odubo E (2011) Determination of aquifer protective capacity and corrosivity of near surface materials in Yenagoa City, Nigeria. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 3(8):785–791Google Scholar
  30. Oteri AU, Atolagbe FP (2003) Saltwater intrusion into Coastal Aquifers in Nigeria. In: The second international conference on saltwater intrusion and Coastal Aquifers—monitoring, modeling and management, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, 30th March–2 April 2003Google Scholar
  31. Rim-Rukeh A (2014) Treatment of iron rich groundwater using KMnO4 and a fixed bed of animal bone char. Br J Appl Sci Technol 4(21):3107–3119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rim-Rukeh A, Irerhievwie G (2014) Assessment of water quality of traditionally protected and unprotected rivers, streams and ponds in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. J Ecol Nat Environ 6(1):25–31Google Scholar
  33. Robeck GG et al (1965) Effectiveness of water treatment processes in pesticide removal. J AWWA 57(2):181–199Google Scholar
  34. Robeck GG, Dostal KA, Woodward RL (1964) Studies of modifications in water filtration. J AWWA 56:198Google Scholar
  35. Tredoux G, Israel S, Cave LC (2004) The Feasibility of in situ groundwater remediation as robust low-cost water treatment option. Water Research Commission Report No 1325/1/04Google Scholar
  36. Udom GJ, Nwankwoala HO, Daniel TE (2016) Determination of water quality index of shallow quaternary Aquifer systems in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Br J Earth Sci Res 4(1):23–37Google Scholar
  37. Udom GJ, Amah EA (2006) Quality status of groundwater in Yenagoa and its environs, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. J Sci Indus Stud 4(1):45–51Google Scholar
  38. United Nations (2006) Guidelines for drinking water quality. WHO Geneva, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  39. World Health Organization. Section 2.3 Charcoal and activated carbon adsorption.
  40. Walker Rodger (1978) Water supply, treatment and distribution. Prentice Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. WHO (2006) International standards for drinking water quality, 3rd edn. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  42. WHO (2011) Evaluating household water treatment options: health-based targets and microbiological performance specifications. World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  43. World Health Organization(WHO) (2006) Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addenda. World Health Organisation, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elechi Okoh
    • 1
  • Bernard Oruabena
    • 1
    Email author
  • Charles O. Amgbari
    • 1
  • Ebitei Sintei Nelson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringFederal Polytechnic EkoweEkoweNigeria

Personalised recommendations