Advertisement

Where Do Young Children Go? Provisioning in Early Childhood Education

  • Purnima Ramanujan
  • Nayan Dave
Chapter

Abstract

Parents are increasingly choosing fee-paying private school education over free government school education for their children, and there is evidence of similar shifts in enrolment trends for young children at the preschool stage. This chapter consolidates evidence on early childhood education (ECE) provisioning in India from multiple sources. Specifically, it examines associations between village-level characteristics and private preschool provisioning using data from the India Early Childhood Education Impact (IECEI) study. Our results indicate that significant and positive associations exist between certain infrastructural and demographic characteristics of villages and private preschool provisioning. In the context of increasing privatization of education, identifying supply-side factors associated with private preschools is important for disentangling issues of access and supply from the demand for private preschools.

Keywords

Early childhood education Private preschool provisioning India 

References

  1. Ali, S. L. (2015). Right to Education (RTE) in context with pre-schooling (ECCE). International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 4, 10.Google Scholar
  2. Andrabi, T., Das, J., & Khwaja, A. I. (2008). A dime a day: The possibilities and limits of private schooling in Pakistan. Comparative Education Review, 52(3), 329–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASER Centre. (2010). Annual status of education report (rural) 2009. New Delhi, India: ASER Centre.Google Scholar
  4. ASER Centre. (2012). Study of impact of early learning, socialisation and school readiness experiences in preschool settings on educational and along the primary stage: Report on baseline field visit: Strand A. New Delhi, India: ASER Centre.Google Scholar
  5. ASER Centre. (2014). Participation and school readiness at Age 5: Evidence from 3 Indian States. Report on Year 1, Strand A, of the India Early Childhood Education Impact study. New Delhi, India: ASER Centre.Google Scholar
  6. ASER Centre. (2015). Annual status of education report (rural) 2014. New Delhi, India: ASER Centre.Google Scholar
  7. ASER Centre. (2017). Annual status of education report (rural) 2016. New Delhi, India: ASER Centre.Google Scholar
  8. Baird, R. (2009). Private schools for the poor: Development, provision, and choice in India. A report for Gray Matters Capital. Retrieved from: http://dise.in/Downloads/Use%20of%20Dise%20Data/Ross%20Baird.pdf
  9. Central Square Foundation. (2016). Pre-primary sections in Government schools: Current landscape and recommendations. New Delhi, India: Central Square Foundation.Google Scholar
  10. Chudgar, A. (2012). Variation in private school performance: The importance of village context. Economic and Political Weekly, 47(11), 52–59.Google Scholar
  11. Chudgar, A., & Creed, B. (2014). How does demand for private schooling vary across locations with different private school supply? Analysis of data from Rural India. Working paper, February 2014.Google Scholar
  12. Chudgar, A., & Quin, E. (2012). Relationship between private schooling and achievement: Results from rural and urban India. Economics of Education Review, 31(4), 376–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De, A., Majumdar, M., Noronha, C., & Samson, M. (2002). Private schools and universal elementary education. In R. Govinda (Ed.), India education report: A profile of basic education. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Drèze, J., & Kingdon, G. G. (2001). Schooling participation in rural India. Review of Development, 5(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  15. FSG. (2015). Affordable ECE program customer research: Findings and analysis Program to Improve Private Early Education (PIPE). Retrieved from: https://www.fsg.org/sites/default/files/publications/Customer%20Research%E2%80%94Findings%20and%20Analysis%20%28September%202015%29.pdf
  16. Government of India. (2013a). National early childhood care and education policy. New Delhi, India: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India.Google Scholar
  17. Government of India. (2013b). Potential good PRACTICES: The ICDS experience. New Delhi, India: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India.Google Scholar
  18. Government of India. (2016–2017). Annual report. New Delhi, India: Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India.Google Scholar
  19. Government of India. (2018). Draft framework for implementation of Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan – An integrated scheme for school education. New Delhi, India: Ministry of Human Resource Development; Department of School Education and Literacy.Google Scholar
  20. Härmä, J. (2009). Can choice promote Education for All? Evidence from growth in private primary schooling in India. Compare, 39(2), 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hindustan Times. (2017). Wake-up call: After overlooking RTE Act for 8 years, Punjab to start preschools. Retrieved from: https://www.hindustantimes.com/punjab/wake-up-call-after-overlooking-rte-act-for-8-years-punjab-to-start-preschools/story-dZykvxPpK3EJUVBBuSj1jI.html
  22. Kaul, V., Bhattacharjea, S., Chaudhary, A. B., Ramanujan, P., Banerji, M., & Nanda, M. (2017). The India early childhood education impact study. New Delhi, India: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  23. Mehrotra, S., & Panchamukhi, P. (2006). Private provision of elementary education in India: Findings of a survey in eight states. Compare, 36(4), 421–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Muralidharan, K., & Kremer, M. (2006). Public and private schools in rural India. Retrieved from: http://scripts.mit.edu/~varun_ag/readinggroup/images/d/dc/Public_and_Private_Schools_in_Rural_India.pdf
  25. National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (2017). Regulatory guidelines for private play schools. Retrieved from: http://ncpcr.gov.in/showfile.php?lang=1&level=1&&sublinkid=933&lid=1271
  26. Pal, S. (2010). Public infrastructure, location of private schools and primary school attainment in an emerging economy. Economics of Education Review, 29(5), 783–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Planning Commission. (2011). Evaluation report on Integrated Child Development Services. New Delhi, India: Programme Evaluation Organisation (PEO), Government of India.Google Scholar
  28. Ramanujan, P., & Deshpande, A. (2018). A study of access, transition and learning in secondary schools. New Delhi, India: ASER Centre.Google Scholar
  29. Rangaraju, B., Tooley, J., & Dixon, P. (2012). The private school revolution in Bihar: Findings from a survey in Patna urban. New Delhi, India/Newcastle, UK: India Institute/EG West Centre, Newcastle University.Google Scholar
  30. Singh, R., & Bangay, C. (2014). Low fee private schooling in India–More questions than answers? Observations from the young lives longitudinal research in Andhra Pradesh. International Journal of Educational Development, 39, 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Srivastava, P., Noronha, C., & Fennell, S. (2013). Private sector study: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Report submitted to DFID India. Retrieved from: http://www.prachisrivastava.com/dfid-sarva-shiksha-abhiyan-private-sector-study.html
  32. Streuli, N., Vennam, U., & Woodhead, M. (2011). Increasing choice or inequality? Pathways through early education in Andhra Pradesh, India. The Hague, the Netherlands: Bernard van Leer.Google Scholar
  33. The Times of India. (2012). West Bengal government to make pre-primary a must. Retrieved from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/12575410.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst
  34. Tooley, J., Dixon, P., & Gomathi, S. V. (2007). Private schools and the millennium development goal of universal primary education: A census and comparative survey in Hyderabad, India. Oxford Review of Education, 33(5), 539–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Woodhead, M., Frost, M., & James, Z. (2013). Does growth in private schooling contribute to Education for All? Evidence from a longitudinal, two cohort study in Andhra Pradesh, India. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(1), 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Woodhead, M., & Streuli, N. (2013). Early Education for All: Is there a role for the private sector? In P. R. Britto, P. L. Engle, & C. M. Super (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood development research and its impact on global policy. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Purnima Ramanujan
    • 1
  • Nayan Dave
    • 2
  1. 1.ASER CentreNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Oxford Policy Management (OPM)New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations