Detection and Quantification Methods for Food Allergens
Food allergy represents an important issue in the field of food safety in industrialized countries because of the severity of allergenic reactions for affected persons even with small amounts of food. Recently, the food industries and legislative and regulatory agencies in different countries have formulated new regulations about displaying food allergen on food labels. Therefore, consumer protection and food labeling require reliable detection and quantification methods of allergens in food products. Several analytical approaches, with the ability of quantifying and detecting traces of allergenic ingredients, which target either the allergenic proteins or allergen markers (peptide fragment or gene segment) have been developed. The most popular methods for allergen detection can be mainly divided into two large groups: the protein-based approaches and the DNA-based approaches. Protein-based methods include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), MS methods, and biosensors. On the basis of the amplification of specific DNA fragments, DNA-based methods can trace the potential presence of culprit allergen, which include polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. In this chapter, we present the advances about specific and highly sensitive analytical methods in the field of food allergens detection, which can avoid the influence by the presence of matrix components.
- Cai QF, Wang XC, Liu GM, Zhang L, Ruan MM, Liu Y, Cao MJ (2013) Development of a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) for quantification of silver carp parvalbumin. Food Control 29:241–247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.06.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kamath SD, Thomassen MR, Saptarshi SR, Nguyen HM, Aasmoe L, Bang BE, Lopata AL (2014) Molecular and immunological approaches in quantifying the air-borne food allergen tropomyosin in crab processing facilities. Int J Hyg Environ Health 217:740–750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu Y, Ohshima T, Ushio H (2015) Rapid detection of fish major allergen parvalbumin by surface plasmon resonance biosensor. J Food Sci 69:C652–C658. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2004.tb18013.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Masiri J, Benoit L, Meshgi M, Day J, Nadala C, Samadpour M (2016) A novel immunoassay test system for detection of modified allergen residues present in almond-, cashew-, coconut-, hazelnut-, and soy-based nondairy beverages. J Food Prot 79:1572–1582. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Montiel RV, Pellicanò A, Campuzano S, Reviejo ÁJ, Cosio MS, Pingarrón JM (2016) Electrochemical detection of peanuts at trace levels in foods using a magnetoimmunosensor for the allergenic protein Ara h 2. Sensors Actuators B Chem 236:825–833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.01.123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Prandi B, Faccini A, Tedeschi T, Galaverna G, Sforza S (2013) LC/MS analysis of proteolytic peptides in wheat extracts for determining the content of the allergen amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM3: influence of growing area and variety. Food Chem 140:141–146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar