Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is a group of neuropsychiatric disorders with different pathophysiology. Clinically, they may present similarly as subacute onset of memory and cognition deficits followed by deterioration of mental status or coma within a few days or weeks. Even though some of the disorders have characteristic findings, it is often challenging to diagnose autoimmune encephalitis due to their similar features in clinical presentation, laboratory, and image findings. Detailed history, physical examination, specific antibody testing, as well as tests to exclude the infectious, metabolic, toxic, or other causes are often needed before the correct diagnosis can be reached. In this chapter, we will discuss about the core clinical features, diagnostic investigations, and management of the diseases. We will compare the differences between the common subtypes of the diseases.
KeywordsAutoimmune encephalitis CSF Antibody Receptor
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