Advertisement

Granulomatous Diseases of the Central Nervous System

  • Mei Wang
  • Zhongxiang Ding
Chapter

Abstract

Granulomatous diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are characterized by hyperplasia and chronic inflammation. The granulomas result from biological pathogens, including bacteria, Treponema pallidum, fungi, and parasites, among others. This section mainly introduces the pathology, clinical, and imaging manifestations of infectious granulomas of the CNS. Pathogen-free granulomatous diseases (PFGD) of CNS are the group of diseases with various clinical and pathological manifestations. The difficulty in diagnosis is the failure to identify pathogenic organisms.

Keywords

Granulomatous diseases Infectious granulomas MRI 

References

  1. 1.
    da Rocha AJ, Maia AC Jr, Ferreira NP, et al. Granulomatous diseases of the central nervous system. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2005;16(2):155–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thomas G, Murphy S, Staunton H, et al. Pathogen-free granulomatous diseases of the central nervous system. Hum Pathol. 1998;29(2):110–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rapalino O, Mullins ME. Intracranial infectious and inflammatory diseases presenting as neurosurgical pathologies. Neurosurgery. 2017;81(1):10–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Santosh V, Mahadevan A, Chickabasaviah YT, et al. Infectious lesions mimicking central nervous system neoplasms. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2010;27(2):122–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Saini J, Gupta RK, Jain KK. Intracranial infections: key neuroimaging findings. Semin Roentgenol. 2014;49(1):86–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thakur K, Zunt J. Neurologic parasitic infections in immigrants and travelers. Semin Neurol. 2011;31(3):231–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Han MH, Zunt JR. Neurologic aspects of infections in international travelers. Neurologist. 2005;11(1):30–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim HJ, Shim KW, Lee MK, et al. Tuberculous encephalopathy without meningitis: pathology and brain MRI findings. Eur Neurol. 2011;65(3):156–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chaudhary V, Bano S, Garga UC. Central nervous system tuberculosis: an imaging perspective. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2017;68(2):161–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raut AA, Naphade PS, Ramakantan R. Imaging spectrum of extrathoracic tuberculosis. Radiol Clin N Am. 2016;54(3):475–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ledbetter LN, Salzman KL, Sanders RK, et al. Spinal neuroarthropathy: pathophysiology, clinical and imaging features, and differential diagnosis. Radiographics. 2016;36(3):783–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Agarwal R, Sze G. Neuro-Lyme disease: MR imaging findings. Radiology. 2009;253(1):167–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hildenbrand P, Craven DE, Jones R, et al. Lyme neuroborreliosis: manifestations of a rapidly emerging zoonosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009;30(6):1079–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beuret F, Schmitt E, Planel S, et al. Subtentorial cerebral nocardiosis in immunocompetent patients: CT and MR imaging findings. Diagn Interv Imaging. 2015;96(9):953–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mathur M, Johnson CE, Sze G. Fungal infections of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22(4):609–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Murthy JM, Sundaram C. Fungal infections of the central nervous system. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;121:1383–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Offiah CE, Naseer A. Spectrum of imaging appearances of intracranial cryptococcal infection in HIV/AIDS patients in the anti-retroviral therapy era. Clin Radiol. 2016;71(1):9–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Katchanov J, Branding G, Jefferys L, et al. Neuroimaging of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with and without immune reconstitution. Int J STD AIDS. 2016;27(2):110–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saini J, Gupta AK, Jolapara MB, et al. Imaging findings in intracranial aspergillus infection in immunocompetent patients. World Neurosurg. 2010;74(6):661–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Starkey J, Moritani T, Kirby P. MRI of CNS fungal infections: review of aspergillosis to histoplasmosis and everything in between. Clin Neuroradiol. 2014;24(3):217–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Navarathna DH, Roberts DD, Munasinghe J, et al. Imaging candida infections in the host. Methods Mol Biol. 2016;1356:69–78.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Teke M, Göçmez C, Hamidi C, et al. Imaging features of cerebral and spinal cystic echinococcosis. Radiol Med. 2015;120(5):458–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yadav VK, Sudhakar SV, Panwar J. Pathognomonic MRI and MR spectroscopy findings in cerebral hydatid cyst. Acta Neurol Belg. 2016;116(3):353–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ross AG, McManus DP, Farrar J, et al. Neuroschistosomiasis. J Neurol. 2012;259(1):22–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu HQ, Feng XY, Yao ZW, et al. Characteristic magnetic resonance enhancement pattern in cerebral schistosomiasis. Chin Med Sci J. 2006;21(4):223–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen J, Chen Z, Lin J, et al. Cerebral paragonimiasis: a retrospective analysis of 89 cases. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013;115(5):546–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xia Y, Chen J, Ju Y, et al. Characteristic CT and MR imaging findings of cerebral paragonimiasis. J Neuroradiol. 2016;43(3):200–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Singh P, Kochhar R, Vashishta RK, et al. Amebic meningoencephalitis: spectrum of imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27(6):1217–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Guarner J, Bartlett J, Shieh WJ, et al. Histopathologic spectrum and immunohistochemical diagnosis of amebic meningoencephalitis. Mod Pathol. 2007;20(12):1230–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shih RY, Koeller KK. Bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections of the central nervous system: radiologic-pathologic correlation and historical perspectives. Radiographics. 2015;35(4):1141–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yusuf FH, Hafiz MY, Shoaib M, et al. Cerebral malaria: insight into pathogenesis, complications and molecular biomarkers. Infect Drug Resist. 2017;10:57–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Seydel KB, Kampondeni SD, Valim C, et al. Brain swelling and death in children with cerebral malaria. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(12):1126–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mohanty S, Benjamin LA, Majhi M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral malaria patients reveals distinct pathogenetic processes in different parts of the brain. mSphere. 2017;2(3):e00193-17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Qi X, Gao J, Sun D, et al. Biofilm formation of the pathogens of fatal bacterial granuloma after trauma: potential mechanism underlying the failure of traditional antibiotic treatments. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40(3):221–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Patil AK, Alexander M, Nair B, et al. Clinical, imaging and histopathological features of isolated CNS lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 2015;25(1):56–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gaha M, Souillard-Scemama R, Miquel C, et al. MR imaging of the brain and spinal cord in lymphomatoid granulomatosis: a case report and review of the literature. J Neuroradiol. 2013;40(5):364–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Luna G, Terrier B, Kaminsky P, et al. Central nervous system involvement of granulomatosis with polyangiitis: clinical-radiological presentation distinguishes different outcomes. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015;54(3):424–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mei Wang
    • 1
  • Zhongxiang Ding
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyAffiliated Hangzhou First People’s Hospital, Zhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations