Advertisement

Abiotic Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wheat

  • Aditi Shreeya Bali
  • Gagan Preet Singh Sidhu
Chapter

Abstract

Wheat is a primary staple food and is ranked third in terms of global production all over the world. It maintains carbohydrate and protein balance in the diet. The unprecedented, fast altering environmental conditions have led to different abiotic stresses in plants such as drought, salinity, heavy metal, and temperature that instigate considerable losses in growth and yield of wheat worldwide. These abiotic stresses cause pollen sterility, disturb photosynthetic apparatus, produce shriveled seeds in wheat, and lead to the exorbitant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that pose pessimistic effects on proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and DNA, eventually inducing oxidative stress in plants. Furthermore, imprudent ROS generation causes oxidative damage, irremediable harm to plant metabolic activities, and ultimately cell death. The systematic scavenging of ROS requires the activity of various enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in plant tissues. This chapter summarizes (i) the effect of various abiotic stresses on growth and physiology of wheat, (ii) ROS production and its induced oxidative damage in wheat, and (iii) mechanism involved in providing tolerance to wheat.

Keywords

Antioxidants Reactive oxygen species Oxidative stress Signaling Tolerance 

Abbreviations

APX

ascorbate peroxidase

CAT

catalase

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

GPX

guaiacol peroxidase

GR

glutathione reductase

H2O2

hydrogen peroxide

MDA

malondialdehyde

NUE

nitrogen use efficiency

1O2

singlet oxygen

O2•−

superoxide radical

OH

hydroxyl radical

RNA

ribonucleic acid

ROS

reactive oxygen species

RuBisCO

ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate carboxylase/oxygenase

SNP

sodium nitroprusside

SOD

superoxide dismutase

References

  1. Alexieva V, Sergiev I, Mapelli S, Karanov E (2001) The effect of drought and ultraviolet radiation on growth and stress markers in pea and wheat. Plant Cell Environ 24:1337–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Issawi M, Rihan HZ, Al-Shmgani H, Fuller MP (2016) Molybdenum application enhances antioxidant enzyme activity and COR15a protein expression under cold stress in wheat. J Plant Interact 11:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almansouri M, Kinet JM, Lutts S (2001) Effect of salt and osmotic stresses on germination in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). Plant Soil 231:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Quraan NA, Sartawe FAB, Qaryouti MM (2013) Characterization of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism and oxidative damage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under salt and osmotic stress. J Plant Physiol 170:1003–1009PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Araki H, Hossain MA, Takahashi T (2012) Waterlogging and hypoxia have permanent effects on wheat root growth and respiration. J Agron Crop Sci 198:264–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashraf MA, Ashraf M, Ali Q (2010) Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents. Pak J Bot 42:559–565Google Scholar
  7. Asseng S, Foster IAN, Turner NC (2011) The impact of temperature variability on wheat yields. Glob Chang Biol 17:997–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Athar R, Ahmad M (2002) Heavy metal toxicity: effect on plant growth and metal uptake by wheat, and on free living Azotobacter. Water Air Soil Pollut 138:165–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balouchi HR (2010) Screening wheat parents of mapping population for heat and drought tolerance, detection of wheat genetic variation. Int J Biol Life Sci 4:63–73Google Scholar
  10. Barlow KM, Christy BP, O’leary GJ, Riffkin PA, Nuttall JG (2015) Simulating the impact of extreme heat and frost events on wheat crop production: a review. Field Crop Res 171:109–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brestic M, Zivcak M, Kunderlikova K, Allakhverdiev SI (2016) High temperature specifically affects the photoprotective responses of chlorophyll b-deficient wheat mutant lines. Photosynth Res 130:251–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chakrabarti B, Singh SD, Nagarajan S, Aggarwal PK (2011) Impact of temperature on phenology and pollen sterility of wheat varieties. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1039–1043Google Scholar
  13. Chakraborty U, Pradhan B (2012) Drought stress-induced oxidative stress and antioxidative responses in four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Arch Agron Soil Sci 58:617–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ci D, Jiang D, Wollenweber B, Dai T, Jing Q, Cao W (2010) Cadmium stress in wheat seedlings: growth, cadmium accumulation and photosynthesis. Acta Physiol Plant 32:365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davies CL, Turner DW, Dracup M (2000) Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) tolerates waterlogging better than narrow-leafed lupin (L. angustifolius). I. Shoot and root growth in a controlled environment. Aust J Agric Res 51:701–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dickin E, Wright D (2008) The effects of winter waterlogging and summer drought on the growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Eur J Agron 28:234–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dimkpa CO, McLean JE, Latta DE, Manangón E, Britt DW, Johnson WP, Boyanov MI, Anderson AJ (2012) CuO and ZnO nanoparticles: phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat. J Nanopart Res 14:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. FAO (2014) Crop prospects and food situation. Food and Agriculture Organization, Global Information and Early Warning System, Trade and Markets Division (EST), RomeGoogle Scholar
  19. Farooq M, Bramley H, Palta JA, Siddique KH (2011) Heat stress in wheat during reproductive and grain-filling phases. Crit Rev Plant Sci 30:491–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Farooq M, Hussain M, Siddique KH (2014) Drought stress in wheat during flowering and grain-filling periods. Crit Rev Plant Sci 33:331–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Farouk S (2011) Ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol minimize salt-induced wheat leaf senescence. J Stress Physiol Biochem 7:58–79Google Scholar
  22. Gajewska E, SkŁodowska M (2010) Differential effect of equal copper, cadmium and nickel concentration on biochemical reactions in wheat seedlings. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:996–1003PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibson LR, Paulsen GM (1999) Yield components of wheat grown under high temperature stress during reproductive growth. Crop Sci 39:184–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gong H, Zhu X, Chen K, Wang S, Zhang C (2005) Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Plant Sci 169:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gupta NK, Agarwal S, Agarwal VP, Nathawat NS, Gupta S, Singh G (2013) Effect of short-term heat stress on growth, physiology and antioxidative defence system in wheat seedlings. Acta Physiol Plant 35:1837–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hameed A, Goher M, Iqbal N (2012) Heat stress-induced cell death, changes in antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, and protease activity in wheat leaves. J Plant Growth Regul 31:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hao F, Wang X, Chen J (2006) Involvement of plasma-membrane NADPH oxidase in nickel-induced oxidative stress in roots of wheat seedlings. Plant Sci 170:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hasanuzzaman M, Fujita M (2013) Exogenous sodium nitroprusside alleviates arsenic-induced oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings by enhancing antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. Ecotoxicology 22:584–596PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Fujita M (2012) Exogenous nitric oxide alleviates high temperature induced oxidative stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings by modulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase system. Aust J Crop Sci 6:1314–1323Google Scholar
  31. Herzog M, Striker GG, Colmer TD, Pedersen O (2016) Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in wheat–a review of root and shoot physiology. Plant Cell Environ 39:1068–1086PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Hlaváčová M, Klem K, Smutná P, Škarpa P, Hlavinka P, Novotná K, Rapantova B, Trnka M (2017) Effect of heat stress at anthesis on yield formation in winter wheat. Plant Soil Environ 63:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hollander-Czytko H, Grabowski J, Sandorf I, Weckermann K, Weiler EW (2005) Tocopherol content and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase and cystine lyase in Arabidopsis under stress conditions. J Plant Physiol 162:767–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Huang B, Johnson JW, Nesmith S, Bridges DC (1994) Growth, physiological and anatomical responses of two wheat genotypes to waterlogging and nutrient supply. J Exp Bot 45:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ihsan MZ, El-Nakhlawy FS, Ismail SM, Fahad S (2016) Wheat phenological development and growth studies as affected by drought and late season high temperature stress under arid environment. Front Plant Sci 7:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Iturbe-Ormaetxe I, Matamoros MA, Rubio MC, Dalton DA, Becana M (2001) The antioxidants of legume nodule mitochondria. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 14:1189–1196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jackson MB (1979) Rapid injury to peas by soil waterlogging. J Sci Food Agric 30:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ji X, Shiran B, Wan J, Lewis DC, Jenkins CLD, Condon AG, Richards RA, Dolferus R (2010) Importance of pre-anthesis anther sink strength for maintenance of grain number during reproductive stage water stress in wheat. Plant Cell Environ 33:926–942PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keyvan S (2010) The effects of drought stress on yield, relative water content, proline, soluble carbohydrates and chlorophyll of bread wheat cultivars. J Anim Plant Sci 8:1051–1060Google Scholar
  40. Khan MIR, Iqbal N, Masood A, Per TS, Khan NA (2013) Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation. Plant Signal Behav 8:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Khan MIR, Nazir F, Asgher M, Per TS, Khan NA (2015) Selenium and sulfur influence ethylene formation and alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress by improving proline and glutathione production in wheat. J Plant Physiol 173:9–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lakhdar A, Iannelli MA, Debez A, Massacci A, Jedidi N, Abdelly C (2010) Effect of municipal solid waste compost and sewage sludge use on wheat (Triticum durum): growth, heavy metal accumulation, and antioxidant activity. J Sci Food Agric 90:965–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lamhamdi M, Bakrim A, Aarab A, Lafont R, Sayah F (2011) Lead phytotoxicity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination and seedlings growth. C R Biol 334:118–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Läuchli A, Epstein E (1990) Plant responses to saline and sodic conditions. In: Tanji KK (ed) Agricultural salinity assessment and management, ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice. ASCE, New York, pp 113–137Google Scholar
  45. Läuchli A, Grattan SR (2007) Plant growth and development under salinity stress. In: Advances in molecular breeding toward drought and salt tolerant crops. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–32Google Scholar
  46. Li X, Ma H, Jia P, Wang J, Jia L, Zhang T, Yang Y, Chen H, Wei X (2012) Responses of seedling growth and antioxidant activity to excess iron and copper in Triticum aestivum L. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 86:47–53PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Li X, Yang Y, Jia L, Chen H, Wei X (2013) Zinc-induced oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme response and proline metabolism in roots and leaves of wheat plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 89:150–157PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Lin R, Wang X, Luo Y, Du W, Guo H, Yin D (2007) Effects of soil cadmium on growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant system in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.). Chemosphere 69:89–98PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Lott N, Ross T, Smith A, Houston T, Shein K (2011) Billion dollar US weather disasters, 1980–2010. National Climatic Data Center, Asheville. Available at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reports/billionz.html Google Scholar
  50. Ma D, Sun D, Wang C, Li Y, Guo T (2014) Expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes and accumulation of flavonoid in wheat leaves in response to drought stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 80:60–66PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Ma SC, Zhang HB, Ma ST, Wang R, Wang GX, Shao Y, Li CX (2015) Effects of mine wastewater irrigation on activities of soil enzymes and physiological properties, heavy metal uptake and grain yield in winter wheat. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 113:483–490PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Malik AI, Colmer TD, Lambers H, Setter TL, Schortemeyer M (2002) Short-term waterlogging has long-term effects on the growth and physiology of wheat. New Phytol 153:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Masood S, Saleh L, Witzel K, Plieth C, Mühling KH (2012) Determination of oxidative stress in wheat leaves as influenced by boron toxicity and NaCl stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 56:56–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mathur S, Jajoo A, Mehta P, Bharti S (2011) Analysis of elevated temperature-induced inhibition of photosystem II using chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics in wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum). Plant Biol 13:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mitchell RAC, Mitchell VJ, Driscoll SP, Franklin J, Lawlor DW (1993) Effects of increased CO2 concentration and temperature on growth and yield of winter-wheat at 2 levels of nitrogen application. Plant Cell Environ 16:521–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Modhej A, Naderi A, Emam Y, Aynehband A, Normohamadi G (2012) Effects of post-anthesis heat stress and nitrogen levels on grain yield in wheat (T. durum and T. aestivum) genotypes. Int J Plant Prod 2:257–268Google Scholar
  57. Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Naveed M, Hussain MB, Zahir ZA, Mitter B, Sessitsch A (2014) Drought stress amelioration in wheat through inoculation with Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN. Plant Growth Regul 73:121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Neill S, Desikan R, Hancock J (2002) Hydrogen peroxide signaling. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:388–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nikolaeva MK, Maevskaya SN, Shugaev AG, Bukhov NG (2010) Effect of drought on chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves of three wheat cultivars varying in productivity. Russ J Plant Physiol 57:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ovečka M, Takáč T (2014) Managing heavy metal toxicity stress in plants: biological and biotechnological tools. Biotechnol Adv 32:73–86PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Perdomo JA, Conesa MÀ, Medrano H, Ribas-Carbó M, Galmés J (2015) Effects of long-term individual and combined water and temperature stress on the growth of rice, wheat and maize: relationship with morphological and physiological acclimation. Physiol Plant 155:149–165PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Petrov V, Hille J, Mueller-Roeber B, Gechev TS (2015) ROS-mediated abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death in plants. Front Plant Sci 6:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Porter JR, Semenov MA (2005) Crop responses to climatic variation. Philos Trans R Soc B 360:2021–2035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pradhan GP, Prasad PV, Fritz AK, Kirkham MB, Gill BS (2012) Effects of drought and high temperature stress on synthetic hexaploid wheat. Funct Plant Biol 39:190–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Prasad PVV, Pisipati SR, Ristic Z, Bukovnik U, Fritz AK (2008) Impact of nighttime temperature on physiology and growth of spring wheat. Crop Sci 48:2372–2380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Prasad PVV, Pisipati SR, Momčilović I, Ristic Z (2011) Independent and combined effects of high temperature and drought stress during grain filling on plant yield and chloroplast EF-Tu expression in spring wheat. J Agron Crop Sci 197:430–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Qiu Z, Guo J, Zhu A, Zhang L, Zhang M (2014) Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 104:202–208PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Rascio A, Picchi V, Naldi JP, Colecchia S, De Santis G, Gallo A, Carlino E, Scalzo RL, De Gara L (2015) Effects of temperature increase, through spring sowing, on antioxidant power and health-beneficial substances of old and new wheat varieties. J Cereal Sci 61:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rizvi A, Khan MS (2017) Biotoxic impact of heavy metals on growth, oxidative stress and morphological changes in root structure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and stress alleviation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CPSB1. Chemosphere 185:942–952PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Rizwan M, Ali S, Abbas T, Zia-ur-Rehman M, Hannan F, Keller C, Al-Wabel MI, Ok YS (2016) Cadmium minimization in wheat: a critical review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 130:43–53PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Saxena DC (2000) Increased antioxidant activity under elevated temperatures: a mechanism of heat stress tolerance in wheat genotypes. Biol Plant 43:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sairam RK, Rao KV, Srivastava GC (2002) Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Sci 163:1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Agarwal S, Meena RC (2005) Differences in antioxidant activity in response to salinity stress in tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Biol Plant 49:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Savicka M, Škute N (2010) Effects of high temperature on malondialdehyde content, superoxide production and growth changes in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.). Ekologija 56:26–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sekmen AH, Ozgur R, Uzilday B, Turkan I (2014) Reactive oxygen species scavenging capacities of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivars under combined drought and heat induced oxidative stress. Environ Exp Bot 99:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Semenov MA, Shewry PR (2011) Modelling predicts that heat stress, not drought, will increase vulnerability of wheat in Europe. Sci Rep-UK 1:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Siddique MRB, Hamid A, Islam MS (2000) Drought stress effects on water relations of wheat. Bot Bull Acad Sin 41:35–39Google Scholar
  79. Sidhu GPS, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK (2016) Effect of lead on oxidative status, antioxidative response and metal accumulation in Coronopus didymus. Plant Physiol Biochem 105:290–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sidhu GPS, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK (2017) Appraising the role of environment friendly chelants in alleviating lead by Coronopus didymus from Pb-contaminated soils. Chemosphere 182:129–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Soltani A, Gholipoor M, Zeinali E (2006) Seed reserve utilization and seedling growth of wheat as affected by drought and salinity. Environ Exp Bot 55:195–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tambussi EA, Bartoli CG, Beltrano J, Guiamet JJ, Araus JL (2000) Oxidative damage to thylakoid proteins in water-stressed leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Physiol Plant 108:398–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Turan MA, Katkat V, Taban S (2007) Variations in proline, chlorophyll and mineral elements contents of wheat plants grown under salinity stress. J Agron 6:137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tuteja N (2010) Cold, salt and drought stress. In: Hirt H (ed) Plant stress biology: from genomics towards system biology. Wiley-Blackwell, Weinheim, pp 137–159Google Scholar
  85. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 61:199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang GP, Li F, Zhang J, Zhao MR, Hui Z, Wang W (2010) Overaccumulation of glycine betaine enhances tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus to drought and heat stress in wheat. Photosynthetica 48:30–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wheeler TR, Hong TD, Ellis RH, Batts GR, Morison JIL, Hadley P (1996) The duration and rate of grain growth, and harvest index, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) in response to temperature and CO2. J Exp Bot 47:623–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wollenweber B, Porter JR, Schellberg J (2003) Lack of interaction between extreme high-temperature events at vegetative and reproductive growth 1290 stages in wheat. J Agron Crop Sci 189:142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yan J, Tsuichihara N, Etoh T, Iwai S (2007) Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are involved in ABA inhibition of stomatal opening. Plant Cell Environ 30:1320–1325PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. Yang Y, Wei X, Lu J, You J, Wang W, Shi R (2010) Lead-induced phytotoxicity mechanism involved in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1982–1987PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Zang X, Geng X, Wang F, Liu Z, Zhang L, Zhao Y, Tian X, Ni Z, Yao Y, Xin M, Hu Z, Sun Q, Peng H (2017) Overexpression of wheat ferritin gene TaFER-5B enhances tolerance to heat stress and other abiotic stresses associated with the ROS scavenging. BMC Plant Biol 17:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aditi Shreeya Bali
    • 1
  • Gagan Preet Singh Sidhu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyM.C.M. DAV College for WomenChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environment EducationGovernment College of Commerce and Business AdministrationChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations