Advertisement

Dealing with the Disaster: The Live Media Event

  • Katja ValaskiviEmail author
  • Anna Rantasila
  • Mikihito Tanaka
  • Risto Kunelius
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses the temporal aspects of the Fukushima disaster in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. Following the live press conferences of the Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano, we trace the temporal trajectory of the development of #edano_nero (‘Get some sleep, Edano!’), a Twitter hashtag that was developed by viewers of the press conferences on their second screens. The reading of live press conferences suggests that a disruptive media event can involve strong emotional dynamics and that it can include somewhat surprising registers. Our empirical findings indicate that in the traumatic situation of an ongoing disaster, social media feeds can serve not only as outlets for feelings, but also as platforms for collective emotion formation that form trajectories in time.

Keywords

Live press conference Second screen Temporal trajectory Fukushima disaster 

References

  1. Allan, S. (2013). Witnessing in crisis: Photo-reportage of terror attacks in Boston and London. Media, War & Conflict, 7(2), 133.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1750635214531110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belair-Gagnon, V. (2015). Social media at BBC news: The re-making of crisis reporting. New York: Routledge.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315742052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blommaert, J. (2018). Formatting online actions: #justsaying on Twitter. Tilburg papers in culture studies, Paper 209. https://www.tilburguniversity.edu/upload/5cc3533c-d604-4225-b2e8-057cc45b9dad_TPCS_209_Blommaert.pdf. Accessed 6 Sept 2018.
  4. Bolter, J. D., & Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding new media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  5. Boorstin, D. J. (1991 [1962]). The image, or, what happened to the American dream. New York: Atheneum.Google Scholar
  6. Carey, J. W. (1998). Political ritual on television: Episodes in the history of shame, degradation and excommunication. In T. Liebes & J. Curran (Eds.), Media, ritual and identity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Chadwick, A. (2013). The hybrid media system: Politics and power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199759477.001.0001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheok, A. D., & Fernando, O. N. N. (2011). Kawaii/Cute interactive media. Universal Access in the Information Society, 11(3), 295.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-011-0249-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Couldry, N. (2003). Media rituals: A critical approach. London: Routledge.  https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203986608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dayan, D., & Katz, E. (1992). Media events: The live broadcasting of history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Ekecrantz, J. (1997). Journalism’s ‘discursive events’ and sociopolitical change in Sweden 1925–87. Media, Culture and Society, 19(3), 393–412.  https://doi.org/10.1177/016344397019003006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frosh, P., & Pinchevski, A. (2014). Media witnessing and the ripeness of time. Cultural Studies, 28(4), 594–610.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2014.891304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galtung, J., & Ruge, M. H. (1965). The structure of foreign news. The presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus crises in four Norwegian newspapers. Journal of Peace Research, 2(1), 64–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Giddens, A. (1990). Consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Goldfarb, J. C. (2018). Media events, solidarity, and the rise and fall of the public sphere. Media, Culture & Society, 40(1), 118–121.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443717726010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harcup, T., & O’Neal, D. (2001). What is news? Galtung and Ruge revisited. Journalism Studies, 2(2), 261.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700120042114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harvey, D. (1990). The condition of postmodernity: An enquiry into the origins of cultural change. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  18. Hashimoto, K., Nakagawa, H., Tahara, Y., & Ohsuga, A. (2010). Reputation trend extraction from microblog using sentiment analysis and topic extraction. Proceedings, JAWS-2010, 1–6. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  19. Hermida, A. (2015). Power plays on social media. Social Media + Society, 1, 1–2.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115580340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Higuchi, K. (2014). Shakai chōsa no tameno keiryō tekisuto bunseki: naiyō bunseki no keishō to hatten o mezashite [Quantitative text analysis for social studies: For succession and development of the content analysis]. Kyoto: Nakanishiya. ‘KH coder’ is available from http://khc.sourceforge.net/en/
  21. Hirakawa, H., & Shirabe, M. (2015). Rhetorical marginalization of science and democracy: Politics in risk discourse on radioactive risks in Japan. In Y. Fujigaki (Ed.), Lessons from Fukushima: Japanese case studies on science, technology and society (pp. 57–86). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  22. Ichikawa, M., & Deguchi, H. (2012). Falconseed wo tsukatta bunseki project [Analysis project by using Falconseed]. The Great East Japan earthquake big data workshop. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/prj311/event/presentation-session/presentation-session2. Accessed 5 Oct 2018. [Japanese].
  23. Kageura, K. (2013). Shinrai no Joken [The precondition of the trust: Discourses about the nuclear accident]. Tokyo: Iwanami. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  24. Katz, D., & Liebes, T. (2007). ‘No more peace!’ How disaster, terror and war have upstaged media events. International Journal of Communication, 1, 158–166.Google Scholar
  25. Liebes, T. (1998). Television’s disaster marathons. A danger for democratic process? In T. Liebes & J. Curran (Eds.), Media, ritual and identity. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Lundgren, R. E., & McMakin, A. H. (2013). Risk communication: A handbook for communicating environmental, safety, and health risks (5th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley-IEEE Press.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118645734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mamada, T. (2013). Wide and diverse sufferings of East Japan earthquake: An analysis by open-ended question. Rikkyo University Bulletin The Journal of Applied Sociology, 55, 27–41. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  28. MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). (2012). White paper on science and technology 2012. English version. Available at http://www.mext.go.jp/en/publication/whitepaper/title03/detail03/1372831.htm
  29. Miyabe, M., Aramaki, E., & Miura, A. (2011). Use trend analysis of Twitter after the Great East Japan earthquake. InIPSJ SIG Technical Report, 53, 1–7. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  30. Nittono, H. (2009). A behavioral science approach to ‘Kawaii’. Bulletin of Graduate School of Integrated Art and Science, Hiroshima University, 4, 29–35. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  31. Ohashi, J. (2015). Kan no tachiba karano discourse: Genpatsujiko kisyakaiken, syusoku sengen sosite cool japan seisaku [Discourses from the position of the government official: Press conference after the nuclear accident, the declaration of settlement and cool Japan]. In N. Yoshinao & R. Kanda (Eds.), 311 genpatsu jikogo no koukyou media no gensetu wo kangaeru [Considering the public discourses after the 3.11 nuclear disaster]. Tokyo: Hitsuji-Shobo.Google Scholar
  32. Pantti, M. (2013). Getting closer? Encounters of the national media with global images. Journalism Studies, 14(2), 201.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2012.718551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Papacharissi, Z. (2014). Affective publics. Sentiment, technology, and politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Samuels, R. J. (2013). 3.11: Disaster and changes in Japan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Semin, G. R., & Fiedler, K. (1988). The cognitive functions of linguistic categories in describing persons: Social cognition and language. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4), 558–568.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.4.558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Slater, D. H., Nishimura, K., & Kindstrand, L. (2012). Social media, information, and political activism in Japan’s 3.11 crisis. The Asia-Pacific Journal, 10(24), 1–31. https://apjjf.org/2012/10/24/David-H.-Slater/3762/article.htmlGoogle Scholar
  37. Solnit, R. (2009). A paradise built in hell: The extraordinary communities that arise in disaster. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  38. Sonnevend, J. (2016). Stories without borders. The Berlin Wall and the making of a global iconic event. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Strömbäck, J., & Esser, F. (2014). The mediatization of politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  40. Suga, S., & Karasawa, M. (2006). Effects of social stereotypes on language use in the description of person dispositions. Japanese Journal of Social Psychology, 22(2), 180–188. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  41. Sumiala, J., Valaskivi, K., Tikka, M., & Huhtamäki, J. (2018). Hybrid media events: The Charlie Hebdo attacks and global circulation of terrorist violence. Bingley: Emerald Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Takamura, H., Inui, T., & Okumura, M. (2006). Extracting semantic orientations using spin model. IPSJ Journal, 47(2), 627–637. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  43. Tanaka, M., Maruyama, K., & Shineha, R. (2012). Saigai jyakusya to jyouhou jyakusya −3.11go nani ga misugosaretanoka? [Disaster vulnerables and digital divide: What we missed after 3.11?]. Tokyo: Chikuma-shobo. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  44. Tenenboim-Weinblatt, K., & Neiger, M. (2018). Temporal affordances in the news. Journalism, 19(1), 37–55.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884916689152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thompson, J.B. (1995). The media and modernity: A social theory of the media. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  46. Vaccari, C., Chadwick, A., & O’Loughlin, B. (2015). Dual screening the political: Media events, social media, and citizen engagement. Journal of Communication, 65(6), 1041–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wahl-Jorgensen, K. (2013). The strategic ritual of emotionality: A case study of Pulitzer Prize-winning articles. Journalism, 14(1), 129–145.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884912448918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yamamoto, T., Nakamura, I., Ogasahara, M., Seki, Y., Hashimoto, Y., Sekiya, N., & Takahashi, K. (2012). Information behavior and communication anxiety on Twitter after the Great East Japan earthquake: Web survey of Twitter user in Kanto region. Journal of Information Studies, Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, 28, 115–160. [Japanese].Google Scholar
  49. Yang, J., & Leskovec, J. (2011, February). Patterns of temporal variation in online media. Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on web search and data mining, A conference publication, 177–186.  https://doi.org/10.1145/1935826.1935863.
  50. Ytreberg, E. (2017). Towards a historical understanding of the media event. Media, Culture and Society, 39(3), 309–324.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443716643155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zelizer, B. (2018). Seeing the present, remembering the past: Terror’s representation as an exercise in collective memory. Television & New Media, 19(2), 136–145.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1527476417695592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katja Valaskivi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anna Rantasila
    • 1
  • Mikihito Tanaka
    • 2
  • Risto Kunelius
    • 1
  1. 1.Tampere UniversityTampereFinland
  2. 2.Waseda UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations