Soft Actuators pp 455-502 | Cite as

IPMC Actuation Mechanisms and Multi-physical Modeling

  • Zicai ZhuEmail author
  • Hualing Chen
  • Longfei Chang


This chapter mainly introduces physical deformation theory of IPMC actuator. At first a series of comparative experiments focused on water content and polymer backbones of IPMC were designed and performed to disclose the actuation mechanisms of relaxation and slow anode deformation. Then a multi-physical model was set up which emphasized on water-related transport process and various eigen stresses. Through numerical analysis, inter-coupling between cation and water, pressure and hydration effects were investigated on the transport process. And in contrast to hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure and electrostatic stress and their properties with cation and water concentrations were analyzed to explain IPMC deformation evolvement with water content. Finally, model simplification was discussed for deformation prediction in engineering application.


IPMC Relaxation deformation Electrical transport Eigen stress Continuum micromechanics 

Supplementary material

Video 28.1

IPMC shows a large negative relaxation (AVI 120604 kb)

Video 28.2

IPMC shows a zero relaxation (AVI 120604 kb)

Video 28.3

IPMC shows a positive relaxation (AVI 120604 kb)

Video 28.4

IPMC shows no relaxation (AVI 120604 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shaanxi Key Lab of Intelligent Robots, School of Mechanical EngineeringXi’an Jiaotong UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Institute of Industry and Equipment TechnologyHefei University of TechnologyHefeiPeople’s Republic of China

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