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Soil and Water Conservation Techniques for Sustainable Agriculture

  • S. Sarvade
  • V. B. Upadhyay
  • Manish Kumar
  • Mohammad Imran Khan
Chapter

Abstract

Natural resources of the country are humiliating due to biotic and abiotic pressures. Around 146.8 Mha land was estimated under degraded land of India by National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS&LUP). Among different land degradation categories, soil erosion through runoff is the major threat for degradation of soil and water resources. It results into 5.3 billion tonnes soil loss annually. Detached soil carry with runoff water and siltation occurs in water reservoirs; it results in depletion of reservoirs storage capacity by 1–2%. Intensive agricultural practices accelerate the rate of soil erosion. In this context, use of groundwater (by drilling tube wells) in high rates also depletes the groundwater level. The groundwater level of 65% open wells was depleted. Such conditions negatively impact on productivity of agriculture crops. High rate of runoff degrades soil health and ultimately decreases the food production of the country. Vegetation and mechanical measures need to be applied separately or in combination for solving such problems of natural resource (soil and water) degradation. Along with such measures, some improved techniques may need to be designed for judicious management of natural resources. Although there were many schemes/programmes/missions also running through government and non-governmental organization to combat these problems, we have to work for the policy on conservation of natural resources through sustainable agricultural practices.

Keywords

Ecological sustainability Natural resources Soil erosion Soil and water conservation Sustainable agriculture 

Abbreviations

C

Carbon

CAZRI

Central arid zone research institute

FYM

Farm yard manure

ICAR

Indian council of agricultural research

MPTs

Multipurpose tree species

N

Nitrogen

NBSS&LUP

National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Utilisation Planning

NFT

Nitrogen fixing trees

OM

Organic matter

SALT

Slopping agricultural land technology

SCT

Staggered contour trenches

SOM

Soil organic matter

SWC

Soil and water conservation

WUE

Water use efficiency

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Sarvade
    • 1
  • V. B. Upadhyay
    • 1
  • Manish Kumar
    • 2
  • Mohammad Imran Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Agriculture, BalaghatJawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa VidhyalayaJabalpurIndia
  2. 2.Central Soil Salinity Research InstituteKarnalIndia

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