Strategies for Combating Climate Change

  • A. O. Akanwa
  • H. C. Mba
  • U. Jiburum
  • K. C. Ogboi


The confusing and increasingly unpredictable climatic conditions and unsustainable human activities have created adverse impacts on the environment. Recent researches by the Columbia University (2018) showed that the earth is in the midst of a 40-year-long global warming drift instigated by human activities. As per NASA report since 1880 climate change records began, the first half of the last 4 years – 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 – all take the highest four hottest recorded periods ever documented. Presently, the average surface temperature on earth between January and June, 2018, is the third hottest half-year on record. Major issues such as natural hazards have been triggered by unguarded anthropogenic activities. This has awakened the public to the reality of a threatened environment as the effects of these problems continue to increase. Added to these, there are emissions from gasoline vehicles and industrial activities which give off huge amounts of hydrocarbons which can contribute to health problems. These corresponding global consequences of climate change issues have increased the need for nations to stride towards compulsory climate change responsibility and strategies to minimize these effects. Research and studies need to be designed considering future climatic trends as well as policies for environmental management and sustainability.

Hence, this chapter orchestrates the salient information about components of environmental management and agroforestry as adaptation measures for the minimization of climate change. Environmental management measures elaborated in this study include the enforcement of polices on air quality and land degradation and the minimization of automobiles and industrial waste emissions that hugely contribute to atmospheric pollution of hydrocarbons. Agroforestry measures discussed on include the promotion of afforestation, agriculture, intensive forestry activities, environmental greening and conserving existing forest reserves in both rural and urban areas. These measures are highlighted as having the capability of minimizing climate change by reducing the extent to which greenhouse gases (GHG) deplete the ozone layer that protects the earth. Obviously, the implementation of key policies and making investments will effectively deal with climate change. The phasing out of fossil fuel automobiles, campaigns against deforestation/tree felling, energy efficiency, technology application and capacity building and information dissemination are basically expedient measures for global climate resilience.


Agroforestry Climate change Environment Greening GHG Hydrocarbons Pollution 



Agroforestry systems




Clean development mechanism




Carbon dioxide


Carbon sequestration potential


Greenhouse gases


Hedgerow intercropping


Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon


Peroxyacetyl nitrate


Protected areas


Reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation


Soil organic carbon


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. O. Akanwa
    • 1
  • H. C. Mba
    • 2
  • U. Jiburum
    • 2
  • K. C. Ogboi
    • 3
  1. 1.Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, (COOU)UliNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental SciencesUniversity of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN)NsukkaNigeria
  3. 3.Centre for Environmental Management and Control (CEMAC)University of Nigeria NsukkaNsukkaNigeria

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