Responsive Infrastructure and Service Provision Initiatives Framing Smart Environment Attainment in Nairobi

  • Romanus O. OpiyoEmail author
  • Silas M. Muketha
  • Wilfred O. Omollo
  • Dennis Mwaniki
Part of the Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements book series (ACHS)


This chapter will seek to document and profile various initiatives in infrastructure development and related services which are deemed smart. The chapter will focus on transport (mobility), water and solid waste management in Nairobi which are seen as either catalysts or potential in attainment of smart environment in Nairobi. Initiatives such as application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) through Kenyan mobile, web and SMS platform, wants to address mobility, water access and waste management challenges in Nairobi. These three sectors are also considered key and basic to all Nairobians regardless of their social status, hence their understanding of how they are provided and accessed is key in understanding how smart approaches in their provision and use can have positive effects in meeting the elusive smart environment. The chapter discusses various initiatives in terms of infrastructure provided, services associated with those infrastructure and application of digital technology and how these are likely to support attainment of smart environment.


Nairobi Smart environment Smart mobility Water Solid waste management 


  1. 1.
    Mwaniki D (2017) Smart city foundation, the core pillar for smart economic development in Nairobi. In: Kumar TV (ed) Smart economy in smart cities. Springer, New Delhi, p 1094Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deloitte (2014) Africa is ready to leapfrog the competition through smart cities technology. Available at
  3. 3.
    Cook DJ, Das SK (2006) Designing smart environments: a paradigm based on learning and prediction.
  4. 4.
    Owuor SO, Mbatia T (2008) Post independence development of Nairobi City, Kenya. Paper presented at Workshop on African Cities, Dakar in Senegal. 22–23 September 2008.
  5. 5.
    Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) (2011). Nairobi city scenariosGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kenya Roads Board (KRB), Roads inventory dataGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nairobi City County (2018) Nairobi City County Integrated Development Plan (2018–2022)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    NUTRANS 2005: Nairobi Urban Transport, 2005, The World BankGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    JICA (2006) The study on master plan for urban transport in the Nairobi metropolitan areaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nairobi County Government (2018) Draft Nairobi County integrated development plan (2017–2022)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
    Mitullah WV, Opiyo RO (2016) Mainstreaming non-motorised transport (NMT) in policy & planning in nairobi: institutional issues and opportunities. J Sustain Mob (JSM) 3(1)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Opiyo RO, Mwau BC, Mwaniki DM, Mwang’a KM (2017) Attaining E-democracy through digital platforms in Kenya. In: Vinod K (ed) E-democracy for smart cities, advances in 21st century human settlements. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd, pp 441–460.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Mwaniki C (2014) Matatus sign to M-Pesa ahead of cash fare ban. Business Daily Africa. Nation Media Group. Retrieved 16 Dec 2017Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hancke GP, Hancke GP Jr (2012) The role of advanced sensing in smart cities. Sensors 13(1):393–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Britton TC, Stewart RA, O’Halloran KR (2013) Smart metering: enabler for rapid and effective post meter leakage identification and water loss management. J Clean Prod 54:166–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nairobi City County (2014) The project on integrated urban development master plan for the city of Nairobi in the Republic of Kenya Final Report-Part I: current conditions. Technical Support from Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Water Resources Management Authority (2010) Environmental impact assessment reportGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wambua S (2004) Water privatization in Kenya. Global Issue Papers, No. 8Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL) (2017) City momentum index 2017 editionGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Republic of Kenya (2002) Water act 2002: laws of Kenya. Government Printer, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shahanas KM, Sivakumar PB (2016) Framework for a smart water management system in the context of smart city initiatives in India. Procedia Comput Sci 92:142–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Choi GW, Chong KY, Kim SJ, Ryu TS (2016) SWMI: new paradigm of water resources management for SDGs. Smart Water 1(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Veolia Approach to Sustainable and Smart City-smart water (n.d.) Retrieved from mea.mkg.smarthub@veolia.comGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Arniella EFP (2017) Evaluation of smart water infrastructure technologies. Inter-American Development BankGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency (2017) The United States water infrastructureGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kenya Airports Parking Services (2015). Innovative Water Management System. Retrieved from
  30. 30.
    Turcu C, Turcu C, Gaitan V (n.d.) Water utility monitoring and control. IOT ApproachGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mutegi M. Business DailyGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Geetha S, Gouthami S (2016) Internet of things enabled real time waterGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hatzopoulos JN (2002) Geographic information systems (GIS) in water management. In: Proceedings of the 3rd international forum integrated water management: the key to sustainable water resourcesGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chapman D (1996) Water quality assessments. In: Water quality assessments—sediments and water in environmental monitoringGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Finlay, Adera (2012) (n.d.) Developing country experiences and emerging research prioritiesGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ndaw MF (2015) (n.d.) Unlocking the potential of information communications technology to improve water and sanitation servicesGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Otuke (2016) (n.d.) Role of information communication technologies in water managementGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    JICA (2010) Preparatory survey for integrated solid waste management in Nairobi City in the Republic of Kenya. Retrieved from Scholar
  39. 39.
    UNDP (2017) Sustainable development goals. Retrieved from
  40. 40.
    Haregu TN, Ziraba AK, Mberu B (2016) Integration of solid waste management policies in Kenya: analysis of coherence, gaps and overlaps. Afr Population Stud 30(3):2876–2885. Retrieved from
  41. 41.
    Republic of Kenya (2010) Constitution. Nairobi, Government PrinterGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Republic of Kenya (2006) Environmental management and coordination (waste management) regulations. Retrieved from
  43. 43.
    Republic of Kenya (1996) Physical planning act. Government Printer, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
    Mwololo M (2016) Managing solid waste remains a nightmare for Nairobi County. Retrieved from
  46. 46.
    Oduor R (2017) We need to do better in terms of waste management in Nairobi County. Retrieved from
  47. 47.
    UNEP (2010) Integrated solid waste management plan for the City of Nairobi. Retrieved from
  48. 48.
    Koech G (2016) Counties to be ranked on how well they manage solid waste. Star Newspaper. Retrieved from
  49. 49.
    County Government of Nairobi (2015) Solid waste management act. Government Printer, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mohammedshum AA, Gebresilassie MA, Rulinda CM, Kahsay GH, Tesfay MS (2014) Application of geographic information system and remote sensing in effective solid waste disposal sites selection in Wukro Town, Tigray, Ethiopia. Int Archiv Photogrammetry Remote Sens Spat. Inf Sci 50(2):115–118Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    NCWSC (2014) Strategic Plan, 2014/2015-2018/2019. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Romanus O. Opiyo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Silas M. Muketha
    • 2
  • Wilfred O. Omollo
    • 3
  • Dennis Mwaniki
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Urban and Regional Planning (DURP)Centre for Urban Research and Innovations (CURI), University of Nairobi (UoN)NairobiKenya
  2. 2.Department of Urban and Regional Planning (DURP)University of Nairobi (UoN)NairobiKenya
  3. 3.Department of Planning and DevelopmentKisii UniversityKisiiKenya
  4. 4.Urban Planning & GIS in GORA Corp.NairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations