Synthesis and Characterization of the Graft Copolymers of Starch for the Application in Packaging Films

  • Sangeeta GargEmail author
  • Aanchal Mittal
  • Anshuman Premi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 30)


In this study, starch was grafted with oleic acid in the presence of the initiators such as potassium persulphate and ammonium persulphate. The mixture of water/dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (1:3) was used as solvent for the reaction. Grafted starch was characterized by FT-IR, X-RD, SEM and TG/DTA. Analysis of the crystallinity of the samples was done by using the X-ray diffraction technique. The reduced area under the crystalline peaks of the grafted starch showed a reduction in the crystallinity of starch after grafting as compared to native starch. SEM images of native starch and grafted starch showed that grafted starch had a rougher surface than native starch. Thermal analysis of the starch and grafted starch was studied as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Grafted starch was more thermally stable as compared to the native starch. It was observed that graft copolymerization of starch with oleic acid led to decrease in the crystallinity of starch and increase in the roughness on the surface of starch which may improve the compatibility of grafted starch with other biopolymers. These grafted copolymers of starch can be used with other biopolymers for the application in packaging films.


Graft copolymerization Initiators, blend films Grafted starch 


  1. Araújo MA, Cunha A, Mota M (2004) Enzymatic degradation of starch-based thermoplastic compounds used in protheses: identification of the degradation products in solution. Biomaterials 25:2687–2693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azahari NA, Othman N, Ismail H (2011) Biodegradation studies of polyvinyl alcohol/corn starch blend films in solid and solution media. J Phys Sci 22(2):15–31Google Scholar
  3. Canché-Escamilla G, Canché-Canché M, Duarte-Aranda S, Cáceres-Farfán M, Borges-Argáez R (2011) Mechanical properties and biodegradation of thermoplastic starches obtained from grafted starches with acrylics. Carbohyd Polym 86(4):1501–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chai WL, Chow JD, Chen CC, Chuang FS, Lu WC (2009) Evaluation of the biodegradability of polyvinyl alcohol/starch blends: a methodological comparison of environmentally friendly materials. J Polym Environ 17:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiellini E, Corti A, D’Antone S, Solaro R (2003) Biodegradation of poly (vinyl alcohol) based materials. Prog Polym Sci 28(6):963–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Garg S, Jana AK (2011) Characterization and evaluation of acylated starch with different acyl groups and degrees of substitution. Carbohyd Polym 83:1623–1630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kohli D, Garg S, Jana AK, Maiti M (2017) Synthesis of graft copolymers for green composite films and optimization of reaction parameters using Taguchi (L16) orthogonal array. Indian Chem Eng 59(2):136–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lani NS, Ngadi N, Johari A, Jusoh M (2014) Isolation, characterization, and application of nanocellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as nanocomposites. J Nanomater 13Google Scholar
  9. Mittal A, Garg S, Kohli D, Maiti M, Jana AK, Bajpai S (2016) Effect of cross linking of PVA/starch and reinforcement of modified barley husk on the properties of composite films. Carbohyd Polym 151:926–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Namazi H, Dadkhah A (2010) Convenient method for preparation of hydrophobically modified starch nanocrystals with using fatty acids. Carbohyd Polym 79:731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Namazi H, Fathi F, Dadkhah A (2011) Hydrophobically modified starch using long-chain fatty acids for preparation of nanosized starch particles. Sci Iran C 18(3):439–445Google Scholar
  12. Negim ESM, Rakhmetullayeva RK, Yeligbayeva G, Ukrimbaeva PI, Primzharova ST, Kaldybekov DB, Khatib JM, Mun GA, Craig W (2014) Improving biodegradability of polyvinyl alcohol/starch blend films for packaging applications. Int J Basic Appl Sci 3(3):263–273Google Scholar
  13. Primarini D, Ohta Y (2000) Some enzyme properties of raw starch digesting amylases from streptomyces sp. no. 4. Starch 52:28–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rhim JW, Ng PK (2007) Natural biopolymer-based nanocomposite films for packaging applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 47(4):411–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Simi CK, Abraham TE (2007) Hydrophobic grafted and cross-linked starch nanoparticles for drug delivery. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 30:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tang X, Alavi S (2011) Recent advances in starch, polyvinyl alcohol based polymer blends, nanocomposites and their biodegradability. Carbohyd Polym 85:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zhang JF, Sun XZ (2004) Mechanical properties of PLA/starch composites compatibilized by maleic anhydride. Biomacromol 5:1446–1451CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringDr B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of TechnologyJalandharIndia

Personalised recommendations