Language Tug-of-War: When English Literacy Education Encounters the National Matriculation English Test Policy in Mainland China

  • Fang He
  • Mark Feng TengEmail author


English literacy education has become more challenging in mainland China. Being inseparable from national political orientation, the National Matriculation English Test (NMET) policy has introduced both challenges and opportunities to English education at the secondary level. Through relevant document analysis, and interviews with eleven English learners and five teachers, we conclude that (a) the decisions made about English education should consider the society as a whole; (b) more parties (like ELT teachers and students) should be involved in the NMET policy making; and (c) English literacy education should not be jeopardized by the necessity of learning Chinese language and culture. English and Chinese instruction should complement each other rather than cause one language to wane while the other waxes.


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanning UniversityNanningChina
  2. 2.Hong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongHong Kong

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