Advertisement

Thermal Environment in Kitchen

  • Angui LiEmail author
  • Risto Kosonen
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides an introduction to kitchen thermal environment and how it can be measured and evaluated. Thermal comfort is influenced by personal factors (activity and clothing insulation) and environmental factors (air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity). Additionally, kitchen thermal environment is influenced by many factors that include the heat load of all kinds of cooking appliances, human body, lighting, and the envelope.

References

  1. ANSI/ASHRAE (2010) ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010. Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc., AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  2. ASHRAE Handbook (2009) ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc., AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  3. ASHRAE Handbook (2013) ASHRAE handbook—Fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc., Atlanta Google Scholar
  4. ASHRAE RP-1469 (2012) Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohac DL, Harrje DT, Norford LK (1985) Constant concentration infiltration measurement technique: an analysis of its accuracy and field measurements. In: 176 proceedings of the ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC conference on the thermal performance of the exterior envelopes of buildings III, Clearwater Beach, FLGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohac DL, Harrje DT, Horner GS (1987) Field study comparisons of constant concentration and PFT infiltration measurements. In: Proceedings of the 8th IEA conference of the air infiltration and ventilation centre, Überlingen, Germany, pp 47–62Google Scholar
  7. California Energy Commission (2002) Design guide improving commercial kitchen ventilation performance. Architectural Energy Corporation and Fisher Nickel, IncGoogle Scholar
  8. Cheng JH, Lee YS, Chen KS (2016) Carbonyl compounds in dining areas, kitchens and exhaust streams in restaurants with varying cooking methods in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. J Environ Sci 1–6Google Scholar
  9. Collet PF (1981) Continuous measurements of air infiltration in occupied dwellings. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEA conference of the air infiltration centre, Stockholm, p 147Google Scholar
  10. Dietz RN, Goodrich RW, Cote EA, Wieser RF (1986) Detailed description and performance of a passive perfluorocarbon tracer system for building ventilation and air exchange measurement. In: Trechsel HR, Lagus PL (eds) Measured air leakage of buildings, STP 904. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, p 203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. EN 13182 (2002) Ventilation for buildings. Instrumentation requirements for air velocity measurements in ventilated spaces, British Standard European NormGoogle Scholar
  12. EN 15251 (2007) Criteria for the indoor environment including thermal, indoor air quality, light and noise. European Committee for Standardization. BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  13. Fanger PO (1973) Thermal comfort. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Fortmann RC, Nagda NL, Rector HE (1990) Comparison of methods for the measurement of air change rates and interzonal airflows to two test residences. In: Sherman MH (ed) Air change rate and airtightness in buildings, STP 1067. American Society of Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, pp 104–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gao J, Jian YT, Cao CS, Chen L, Zhang X (2015) Indoor emission, dispersion and exposure of total particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during cooking. Atmos Environ 120:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang RF, Dai GZ, Chen JK (2010) Effects of mannequin and walk-by motion on flow and spillage characteristics of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods. Ann Occup Hyg 54(6):625Google Scholar
  17. Hunt CM (1980) Air infiltration: a review of some existing measurement techniques and data. In: Hunt CM, King JC, Trechsel HR (eds) Building air change rate and infiltration measurements, STP 719. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, p 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ISO 7726 (1998) International Standard: Ergonomics of the thermal environment—instruments for measuring physical quantities. International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  19. ISO 7730 (2005) Ergonomics of the thermal environment—analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  20. ISO 7933 (2004) International Standard: Hot environment—analytical determination and interpretation of thermal stress using calculation of required sweat. International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  21. ISO 11079 (2007) International Standard: Ergonomics of the thermal environment—determination and interpretation of cold stress when using requires insulation (IREQ) and local cooling effect. International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar R, Ireson AD, Orr HW (1979) An automated air infiltration measuring system using SF6 tracer gas in constant concentration and decay methods. ASHRAE Trans 85(2):385Google Scholar
  23. Lan L (2010) Mechanism and evaluation of the effect of indoor environment on personnel efficiency. Shanghai Jiaotong University (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Li AG, Zhao YJ, Jiang DH, Hou XT (2012) Measurement of temperature, relative humidity, concentration distribution and flow field in four typic at Chinese commercial kitchens. Build Environ 56:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Livchak A, Schrock D, Sun Z (2005) The effect of supply air systems on kitchen thermal environment. ASHRAE Trans 111(1):748–754Google Scholar
  26. Meese GB, Kok R, Lewis MI, Wyon DP (1982) Effects of moderate cold and heat stress on factory workers in Southern Africa, 2: skill and performance in the cold. S Afr J Sci 78:189–197Google Scholar
  27. National Restaurant Association (2003) Restaurant industry forecastGoogle Scholar
  28. National Restaurant Association (2013) Restaurant industry forecastGoogle Scholar
  29. Pepler RD, Warner RE (1968) Temperature and learning: an experimental study. ASHRAE Trans 74:211–219Google Scholar
  30. Poulton EC (1970) Environment and human efficiency. Thomas, Springfield, USAGoogle Scholar
  31. Rock BA (1992) Characterization of transient pollutant transport, dilution, and removal for the study of indoor air quality. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, University Microfilms InternationalGoogle Scholar
  32. Sherman MH, Wilson DJ (1986) Relating actual and effective ventilation in determining indoor air quality. Build Environ 21(3/4):135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Singer BC, Delp WW, Apte MG (2011) Experimental evaluation of installed cooking exhaust fan performance. Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  34. Stabile L, Fuoco FC, Marini S, Buonanno G (2015) Effects of the exposure to indoor cooking-generated particles on nitric oxide exhaled by women. Atmos Environ 103:238–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Takano S, Yamanaka T, Kotani H (2009) Capture efficiency of exhaust hood for commercial kitchen using low radiation cooking equipment with concentrated exhaust. In: The 9th international conference on industrial ventilation, pp 18–21Google Scholar
  36. Walker IS, Forest TW (1995) Field measurements of ventilation rates in attics. Build Environ 30(3):333–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Walker IS, Wilson DJ (1998) Field validation of algebraic equations for stack and wind driven air infiltration calculations. Int J HVAC&R Res (now HVAC&R Res) 4(2):119–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wilkinson RT, Fox RH, Goldsmith R, Hampton IFG, Lewis HE (1964) Psychological and physiological responses to raised body temperature. J Appl Physiol 19:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wilson DJ and IS Walker (1993) Infiltration data from the Alberta home heating research facility. Technical note 41 air infiltration and ventilation centre, Sint-Stevens-Woluwe, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  40. Wyon DP (1970) Studies of children under imposed noise and heat stress. Ergonomics 13:598–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wyon DP (1974) The effects of moderate heat stress on typewriting performance. Ergonomics 17(3):309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wyon DP (1996) Indoor environmental effects on productivity. In: IAQ 96 Paths to better building environments/keynote address, Kevin Y. Atlanta, ASHRAE, pp 5–15Google Scholar
  43. Wyon DP, Wargocki P (2005) Room temperature effects on office work. In: Clements-Croome D (ed) Creating the productive workplace, 2nd edn. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  44. Yuan JP, Wang LY, Liu XF, He ZX (2013) The research of performance comparison of displacement and mixing ventilation system in catering kitchen. J Environ Prot 03(2):61–68Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Xi’an University of Architecture and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.Aalto UniversityEspooFinland

Personalised recommendations