Muscle Oxygen Saturation Correlates with Muscle Mechanomyography During Prolonged Electrical Stimulation-Evoked Wrist Extension Exercise

  • Nurul Salwani Mohamad Saadon
  • Nur Azah HamzaidEmail author
  • Nazirah Hasnan
  • Muhammad Afiq Dzulkifli
  • Mira Teoh
  • Kok Beng Gan
  • Glen M. Davis
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 547)


This study assessed electrically-evoked sustained muscle contractions with real-time changes in near-infrared spectroscopy and mechanomyography signals. Twenty healthy volunteers performed electrical-evoked wrist extension for 10 min. Root mean square derived from MMG (%RMS-MMG) and tissue oxygen saturation (%StO2) from NIRS of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle were monitored throughout the sessions. The correlated responses of these two measures comprised of 7 consecutive sets of 10 contractions each. %StO2 revealed an initial decline from muscle contraction 1 to 10 and then an increase from contraction 11 to 70. For %RMS-MMG, a significant decrease was observed from contraction 1 to 10 as well as from contraction 41 to 60 while an increase was seen from contraction 11 to 40 and from contraction 61 to 70. Positive low-order correlations were found between %StO2 and %RMS-MMG during the start of the exercise while later on, the two variables were negatively correlated. As the number of contractions increased over time, increased %StO2 revealed good oxygen saturation aligned with decreased %RMS-MMG values, suggesting decreased muscle fiber activation and strength. In this study, the physiological muscle responses were associated with its mechanical characteristics.


Functional electrical stimulation Muscle strength Muscle oxygenation Rehabilitation Upper limb 


  1. 1.
    Ryan, T.E., Erickson, M.L., Young, H.J., McCully, K.K.: Case report: endurance electrical stimulation training improves skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in chronic spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 94(12), 2559–2561 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ibitoye, M.O., Estigoni, E.H., Hamzaid, N.A., Abdul Wahab, A.K., Davis, G.M.: The effectiveness of FES-evoked EMG potentials to assess muscle force and fatigue in individuals with spinal cord injury. Sensors 14(7), 12598–12622 (2014). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beck, T.W., Housh, T.J., Johnson, G.O., Weir, J.P., Cramer, J.T., Coburn, J.W., Malek, M.H.: Mechanomyographic amplitude and mean power frequency versus torque relationships during isokinetic and isometric muscle actions of the biceps brachii. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 14(5), 555–564 (2004). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Orizio, C., Gobbo, M., Diemont, B., Esposito, F., Veicsteinas, A.: The surface mechanomyogram as a tool to describe the influence of fatigue on biceps brachii motor unit activation strategy. Historical basis and novel evidence. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 90(3–4), 326–336 (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sarillee, M., Hariharan, M., Anas, M.N., Omar, M.I., Aishah, M.N., Oung, Q.W.: Non-invasive techniques to assess muscle fatigue using biosensors: a review. In: Proceedings—2014 5th IEEE Control and System Graduate Research Colloquium, ICSGRC 2014, pp. 187–192 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Praagman, M., Veeger, H.E.J., Chadwick, E.K.J., Chadwick, E.K.J., Colier, W.N.J.M., van der Helm, F.C.T.: Muscle load sharing an energy-based approach. J. Biomech. 36, 905–912 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Murthy, G., Kahan, N., Hargens, A., Rempell, D.: Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction. J. Orthop. Res. 15(4), 507–511 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Muraki, S., Tsunawake, N., Masahiro, Y.: Limitation of muscle deoxygenation in the triceps during incremental arm cranking in women. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 91(2–3), 246–252 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McNeil, C.J., Murray, B.J., Rice, C.L.: Differential changes in muscle oxygenation between voluntary and stimulated isometric fatigue of human dorsiflexors. J. Appl. Physiol. 100(3), 890–895 (2006). Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stenberg, J., Astrand, P.O., Ekblom, B., Royce, J., Saltin, B.: Hemodynamic response to work with different muscle groups, sitting and supine. J. Appl. Physiol. 22(1), 61–70 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Elcadi, G.H., Forsman, M., Hallman, D.M., Aasa, U., Fahlstrom, M., Crenshaw, A.G.: Oxygenation and hemodynamics do not underlie early muscle fatigue for patients with work-related muscle pain. PLoS ONE 9(4) (2014).
  12. 12.
    Al-Mulla, M.R., Sepulveda, F., Colley, M.: A review of non-invasive techniques to detect and predict localised muscle fatigue. Sensors 11(4), 3545–3594 (2011). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yoshitake, Y., Moritani, T.: The muscle sound properties of different muscle fiber types during voluntary and electrically induced contractions. J. Electromyogr. Kinesiol. 9(3), 209–217 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clarkson, P.M., Tremblay, I.: Exercise-induced muscle damage, repair, and adaptation in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 65(1), 1–6 (1988). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nurul Salwani Mohamad Saadon
    • 1
  • Nur Azah Hamzaid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nazirah Hasnan
    • 2
  • Muhammad Afiq Dzulkifli
    • 1
  • Mira Teoh
    • 1
  • Kok Beng Gan
    • 3
  • Glen M. Davis
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Rehabilitation MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Department of Electrical and Electronic & Systems EngineeringUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  4. 4.Clinical Exercise and Rehabilitation Unit, Discipline of Exercise and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of SydneyLidcombeAustralia

Personalised recommendations