A Three-Level Framwork for Utilizing the Demand Response to Improve the Operation of the Integrated Energy Systems
The electricity output of combined heat and power (CHP) units is constrained by their heat output corresponding to customers' heat demand, which makes it difficult for the CHP units to frequently adjust their electricity output. Therefore, additional balancing power is required to integrate the variable wind power in the CHP-based heat and electricity integrated energy system (HE-IES). This chapter expands the demand response (DR) concept to the HE-IES. A comprehensive DR strategy combining energy substitution and load shifting is first developed to exploit the demand flexibility of smart buildings. Besides electric balancing power, heat balancing power is also provided to relax the production constrains of CHP units. Moreover, a real-time DR exchange (DRX) market is developed where the building aggregators are stimulated to adjust buildings' energy consumption behaviors and provide the required balancing power. Compared with the existing day-ahead DRX market, the real-time DRX market can balance the very short-term wind power fluctuation and reduce price spikes. Additionally, a novel optimum feasible region method is proposed to achieve the fast clearing of the DRX market to meet the higher requirement for clearing speed in the real-time market. Simulation results verify the advantages of the proposed technique.
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