Inverter Air Conditioner Aggregation for Providing Frequency Regulation Service

  • Yi DingEmail author
  • Yonghua Song
  • Hongxun Hui
  • Changzheng Shao


The frequency regulation service (FRS) is playing an increasingly important role in maintaining the power balance between generation and consumption. Moreover, the recent progress in information and communication technologies has enabled residential customers to participate in FRS through direct control over appliances, such as inverter air conditioners (ACs), whose market share is growing rapidly and has made up a large fraction of electricity consumption. Inverter ACs can change compressor’s speed continuously to adjust operating power and provide FRS for the system operation. In this chapter, the thermal model of a room and the electrical model of an inverter AC for providing FRS are developed. The model of the inverter AC is equivalent to a generator. In this manner, the aggregation of inverter ACs can be controlled just as traditional generators. Besides, a stochastic allocation method of the regulation sequence among inverter ACs is proposed to reduce the effect of FRS on customers. A hybrid control strategy by taking into account the dead band control and the hysteresis control is also developed to reduce the frequency fluctuations of power systems. The effectiveness of the proposed models and control strategies are illustrated in the numerical studies.


  1. 1.
    T. Strasser, F. Andrén, J. Kathan, C. Cecati, C. Buccella, P. Siano, P. Leitao, G. Zhabelova, V. Vyatkin, P. Vrba, V. Mařík, A review of architectures and concepts for intelligence in future electric energy systems. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 62(4), 2424–2438 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Z. Li, X. Wu, K. Zhuang, L. Wang, Y. Miao, B. Li, Analysis and reflection on frequncy characteristics of East China Grid after bipolar locking of 9.19 Jinping-Sunan DC transimission line. Autom. Electr. Power Syst. 41(7), 149–155 (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Administrative investigation report on the power failure 815, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, Republic of China, Technical Report (2017),
  4. 4.
    Y.G. Rebours, D.S. Kirschen, M. Trotignon, S. Rossignol, A survey of frequency and voltage control ancillary services—Part I: technical features. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 22(1), 350–357 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Hui, Y. Ding, W. Liu, Y. Lin, Y. Song, Operating reserve evaluation of aggregated air conditioners. Appl. Energy 196, 218–228 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Siano, Demand response and smart grids—a survey. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 30, 461–478 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Wang, N. Zhang, C. Kang, D.S. Kirschen, J. Yang, Q. Xia, Standardized matrix modeling of multiple energy systems. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid (2017), (in press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Palensky, D. Dietmar, Demand side management: Demand response, intelligent energy systems, and smart loads. IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform. 7(3), 381–388 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Nanda, S. Mishra, L.C. Saikia, Maiden application of bacterial foraging-based optimization technique in multiarea automatic generation control. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 24(2), 602–609 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Siano, D. Sarno, Assessing the benefits of residential demand response in a real time distribution energy market. Appl. Energy 161(7), 533–551 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Wang, H. Zhong, C. Tan, X. Chen, R. Rajagopal, Q. Xia, C. Kang, Economic benefits of integrating solar-powered heat pumps into a CHP system. IEEE Trans. Sust. Energy (2018), (in press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Liu, Z. Hu, Y. Song, J. Wang, X. Xie, Vehicle-to-grid control for supplementary frequency regulation considering charging demands. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 30(6), 3110–3119 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Molina-Garcia, F. Bouffard, D.S. Kirschen, Decentralized demand-side contribution to primary frequency control. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 26(1), 411–419 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Benysek, J. Bojarski, R. Smolenski, M. Jarnut, S. Werminski, Application of stochastic decentralized active demand response (DADR) system for load frequency control. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 99, 1–8 (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Y. Bao, Y. Li, Y. Hong, B. Wang, Design of a hybrid hierarchical demand response control scheme for the frequency control. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 9(15), 2303–2310 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Weckx, R. D’Hulst, J. Driesen, Primary and secondary frequency support by a multi-agent demand control system. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 30(3), 1394–1404 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Isaac, D.P.V. Vuuren, Modeling global residential sector energy demand for heating and air conditioning in the context of climate change. Energy Policy 37(2), 507–521 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Air conditioning consumes one third of peak electric consumption in the summer, Science Daily, Technical Report (2012),
  19. 19.
    AC makers betting on consumers’ shift to inverter models, BusinessLine, Technical Report (2017),
  20. 20.
    Analysis on inverter air conditioners in China in Oct. 2015, Information network of Chinese business, Technical Report (2015),
  21. 21.
    What is Inverter Technology AC, Bijli Bachao, Technical Report (2017),
  22. 22.
    M. Song, C. Gao, H. Yan, J. Yang, Thermal battery modeling of inverter air conditioning for demand response. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 99, 1–13 (2017)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Shao, W. Shi, X. Li, H. Chen, Performance representation of variable-speed compressor for inverter air conditioners based on experimental data. Int. J. Refrig. 27(8), 805–815 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    W. Zhang, J. Lian, C.Y. Chang, K. Kalsi, Aggregated modeling and control of air conditioning loads for demand response. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 28(4), 4655–4664 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    N. Mahdavi, J. H. Braslavsky, C. Perfumo, Mapping the effect of ambient temperature on the power demand of populations of air conditioners. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 99, 1–10 (2016)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    N. Lu, An evaluation of the HVAC load potential for providing load balancing service. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 3(3), 1263–1270 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Grainger, W.D. Stevenson, Power System Analysis, 1st edn. (McGraw-Hill, Michigan, U.S.A, 1994)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Z. Han, Power System Analysis, 5th edn. (Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou, China, 2013)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. Hui, Y. Ding, M. Zheng, Equivalent modeling of inverter air conditioners for providing frequency regulation service. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 66(2):1413-1423 (2019).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Wang, C. Zhang, Y. Jing, D. An, Study of neural network PID control in variable-frequency air-conditioning system, in IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation, Guangzhou, China, 30 May–1 June, 2007, pp. 317–322Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Continental Europe Operation Handbook, Policy 1-Load Frequency Control and Performance, entsoe, Technical Report (2018),
  32. 32.
    Continental Europe Operation Handbook, Appendix 1-Load Frequency Control and Performance, entsoe, Technical Report (2018),
  33. 33.
    Frequency Response Requirements-Phase 1 (ER16-1483), California ISO, 21 April, 2016,

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Ding
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yonghua Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongxun Hui
    • 1
  • Changzheng Shao
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.University of MacauMacauChina

Personalised recommendations