Aggregated Air Conditioners for Providing Operating Reserve

  • Yi DingEmail author
  • Yonghua Song
  • Hongxun Hui
  • Changzheng Shao


The penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) in power system is increasing around the world. However, the severe intermittency and variability characteristics of RES make the operating reserve become more and more important for the electric power system to maintain balance between supply and demand. Moreover, the flexible loads, especially for air conditioners (AC), are growing so rapidly that they account for an increasingly large share in power consumption. With the development of information and communication technologies (ICT), ACs can be monitored and controlled remotely to provide operating reserve and respond actively when needed by the electric power system operation. In this chapter, a novel control strategy for the aggregation model of ACs based on the thermal model of the room is proposed. By resetting the temperature of each AC, the operation state is adjusted temporarily without affecting customers’ satisfaction. The operation characteristics of both individual AC and the aggregation model of ACs are analysed. Furthermore, several indexes are put forward to evaluate the operating reserve performance, including reserve capacity, response time, duration time and ramp rate. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is illustrated in the numerical studies.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Ding
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yonghua Song
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hongxun Hui
    • 1
  • Changzheng Shao
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.University of MacauMacauChina

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