Benign Mucosal Disorders
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Benign mucosal disorders are mainly located at the level of supraglottis and glottis. Glottic lesions, of which the most common disorders are vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, vocal fold cyst and Reinke’s edema. They are usually caused by vocal misuse or overuse and other causative factors including infections, allergies, smoking, or laryngopharyngeal reflux. The degree of hoarseness is related to the location, size, and duration of lesions. Abnormal use of voice can also cause vocal fold vascular lesions, including vascular ectasia, varicose veins or hematoma, leading to further worsening of dysphonia. Hoarseness in children should not be overlooked. Dysphonia in children may be due to dysplasia or vocal misuse or overuse. Vocal nodules are more common in benign mucosal disorders of children.
Strobolaryngoscopic video of Reinke’s edema (MP4 2267 kb)