Inflammatory Diseases



Inflammatory diseases are the most common diseases in the pharynx and larynx. The development of acute inflammation usually has an acute onset and has varied degrees of hoarseness (or even aphonia), cough, sore throat, dyspnea, dysphagia, depending on the involved anatomical tissue. Very often, acute inflammation of the larynx sometimes coexists with the upper respiratory tract infection. For acute laryngitis, besides the appearance of mucosal hyperemia and edema, laryngoscopy usually reveals obvious white plaque-like inflammatory exudation which is prone to confusing with vocal fold leukoplakia. Chronic inflammation usually has a slow onset and presents with hoarseness, pharyngeal discomfort, pharyngeal foreign body sensation, recurrent throat clearing and sore throat. Hoarseness is usually intermittent and worse after vocal misuse and overuse, then progressively aggravates to persistent hoarseness. Furthermore, the laryngoscopic examination of patients with reflux laryngopharyngitis can reveal the mucosal hyperemia, posterior commissure hypertrophy or erythema of the arytenoid cartilages. Pseudosulcus vocalis can also be seen in laryngopharyngeal reflux.

Supplementary material

Video 4.1

Strobolaryngoscopy video of acute laryngitis (MP4 2001 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Peoples Medical Publishing House 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wen Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryBeijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical UniversityBeijingChina

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