Tiger Milk Mushroom (The Lignosus Trinity) in Malaysia: A Medicinal Treasure Trove

  • Shin-Yee Fung
  • Chon-Seng Tan


The Tiger Milk mushroom is traditionally used by aborigines and locals alike for various bodily ailments and to improve general health. In Malaysia, three species of genus Lignosus have been identified: Lignosus rhinocerus, Lignosus tigris, and Lignosus cameronensis. Taxonomically, Lignosus rhinocerus is distinct from the rest of the Lignosus species. Prior to the discovery and identification of Lignosus tigris and Lignosus cameronensis as two separate and distinct species from Lignosus rhinocerus, these were often described and used interchangeably as Lignosus rhinocerus. To date, the wild types of these three species are still being referred to as Lignosus rhinocerus, as the sclerotia are often collected without intact stipe and cap, which make it hard to differentiate among the three. Scientific investigations to validate the traditional claims recorded by ethnomycological surveys have focused on the investigation of the composition and functional properties of Lignosus rhinocerus sclerotium. Chronic, subacute and acute toxicity, genotoxicity, antifertility and teratogenic, nutritive, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative activity and inhibition of protein glycation effects have been reported using the cultivated species (TM02) of this mushroom. The genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic studies on Lignosus rhinocerus sclerotium have also been performed. A substantial amount of data has been generated since the inception of the research in 2009 by the Medicinal Mushroom Research Group (MMRG) in the Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia. Active research is ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate more scientific data of this much sought-after medicinal mushroom.


Lignosus Rhinocerus Tigris Cameronensis Tiger Milk mushroom Medicinal mushroom 



Human mammary gland/breast epithelial cells


Advanced glycation end-product


Association of Official Analytical Communities






Dietary fiber


Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line


Mushroom complete medium


Medicinal Mushroom Research Group


Nondigestible carbohydrates


Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development




Superoxide dismutase


Lignosus rhinocerus TM02 cultivar


Tumor necrosis factor


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shin-Yee Fung
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chon-Seng Tan
    • 4
  1. 1.Medicinal Mushroom Research Group (MMRG), Department of Molecular MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Natural Products Research and Drug Discovery (CENAR)University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.University of Malaya Centre for Proteomics Research (UMCPR), University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Ligno Research FoundationBalakong JayaMalaysia

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