Discovery of Muscarine Leading to the Basic Understanding of Cholinergic Neurotransmission and Various Clinical Interventions

  • Sindhu Ramesh
  • Mohammed Majrashi
  • Mohammed Almaghrabi
  • Manoj Govindarajulu
  • Maali Fadan
  • Jack Deruiter
  • Randall Clark
  • Vanisree Mulabagal
  • Dinesh Chandra AgrawalEmail author
  • Timothy Moore
  • Muralikrishnan DhanasekaranEmail author


Muscarine was initially detected in mushrooms, and this discovery has led to the treatment of various diseases, and the therapeutic efficacy has been a godsend to the humans. The objective of this book chapter is to address the discovery of muscarine leading to the basic understanding of cholinergic neurotransmission and various clinical interventions. Furthermore, we have also explicated about the discovery of “muscarine” and its important role in delineating the basic concepts in understanding the characterization of central and peripheral cholinergic neurotransmission and its relevant clinical interventions. Muscarinic receptors stimulation or blockade plays an important role in the pathophysiology of a variety of disease states. Consequently, drugs acting on muscarinic receptors have revolutionized the human and animal health industry. Actions of muscarinic agonists or antagonists have led to potential therapeutic outcomes to treat numerous pathological conditions associated with central and peripheral nervous system. However, toxic symptoms or the adverse drug reactions are attributed to excess stimulation of cholinergic receptors by muscarine.


Cholinergic neurotransmission Muscarinic receptors Mushrooms Mushroom poisoning Therapeutic value Toxicity 



Alzheimer’s disease


Autonomic nervous system


Central nervous system




Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


Cardiovascular system


Cytochrome P450


Guanosine diphosphate


Gastro esophageal reflux disease


Gastrointestinal tract


G protein-coupled receptors




Irritable bowel syndrome


Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors


Monoamine oxidase


Overactive bladder


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sindhu Ramesh
    • 1
  • Mohammed Majrashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohammed Almaghrabi
    • 3
  • Manoj Govindarajulu
    • 1
  • Maali Fadan
    • 1
  • Jack Deruiter
    • 1
  • Randall Clark
    • 1
  • Vanisree Mulabagal
    • 4
  • Dinesh Chandra Agrawal
    • 5
    Email author
  • Timothy Moore
    • 1
  • Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Harrison School of PharmacyAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of JeddahJeddahKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of PharmacyTaibah UniversityAlmadinah AlmunawwarahKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  5. 5.Department of Applied ChemistryChaoyang University of TechnologyTaichungTaiwan

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