Advertisement

Journalism Theories in Media Studies

  • Miri Moon
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses the current media literature and journalism theories to clarify the rationale for the framework of my research within the sociological field of news production. At the same time, given the conflict between the two Koreas, whether the major theoretical approaches can be applied to the examination of Korean news production will be discussed. By exploring the role of news in democratic countries, Bourdieu’s concept of ‘a field’ and the factors that influence news frames will be construed. In addition, this chapter discusses the necessity of a paradigm shift in journalism studies in the wake of the end of the Cold War, as Hallin and Mancini (Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004) state.

References

  1. Allan, S. (2004). News Culture. Maidenhead and New York: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Atton, C. (2007). Current Issues in Alternative Media Research. Sociology Compass, 1(1), 17–27.Google Scholar
  3. Atton, C. (2015). The Routledge Companion to Alternative and Community Media. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Bennett, W. L. (1982). Rethinking Political Perception and Cognition. Micropolitics, 2, 175–202.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, W. L. (2003). New Media Power: The Internet and Global Activism. In N. Couldry & J. Curran (Eds.), Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World (pp. 13–37). Oxford, UK: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  6. Bennett, W. L. (2012). News: The Politics of Illusion (9th ed.). New York: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  7. Bennett, W. L., & Iyengar, S. (2008). A New Era of Minimal Effects? The Changing Foundations of Political Communication. Journal of Communication, 58, 707–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benson, R., & Neveu, E. (2005). Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  9. Blais, A., & Bodet, M. A. (2006). How Do Voters Form Expectations About the Parties’ Chances of Winning the Election? Social Science Quarterly, 87(3), 477–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borah, P. (2011). Conceptual Issues in Framing Theory: A Systematic Examination of a Decade’s Literature. Journal of Communication, 61(2), 246–263.Google Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P. (2005). The Political Field, the Social Science Field, and the Journalistic Field. In R. Benson & E. Neveu (Eds.), Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field (pp. 29–47). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  12. Boyd-Barrett, O. (1995). The Political Economy Approaches. In O. Boyd-Barrett & C. Newbold (Eds.), Approaches to Media: A Reader (pp. 186–192). London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  13. Boyd-Barrett, O. (1997). Global News Wholesalers as Agents of Globalization. In A. Sreberny-Mohammadi, D. A. Winseck, J. W. McKenna, & O. Boyd-Barrett (Eds.), Media in the Global Context: A Reader. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  14. Boyd-Barrett, O. (1998). Media Imperialism Reformulated. In D. Thussu (Ed.), Electronic Empires, Global Media and Local Resistance (pp. 157–176). Arnold: London.Google Scholar
  15. Boyd-Barrett, O. (2000). National and International News Agencies: Issues of Crisis and Realignment. Gazette, 62(1), 5–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boyd-Barrett, O. (2004). Judith Miller, The New York Times, and the Propaganda Model. Journalism Studies, 5(4), 435–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boyd-Barrett, O. (2006). Cyberspace, Globalization and Empire. Global Media and Communication, 2, 21–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boyd-Barrett, O., & Rantanen, T. (Eds.). (1998). The Globalization of News. London, Thousand Oaks, and New Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Boyd-Barrett, O., & Thussu, D. (1992). Contra-Flow in Global News: International and Regional News Exchange Mechanisms. London: John Libbey.Google Scholar
  20. Bryant, J., & Miron, D. (2004). Theory and Research in Mass Communication. Journal of Communication, 54(4), 662–704.Google Scholar
  21. Carpenter, S. (2007). U.S. Elite and Non-elite Newspapers’ Portrayal of the Iraq War: A Comparison of Frames and Source Use. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(4), 761–776. Google Scholar
  22. Carpentier, N., & Cammaerts, B. (2006). Hegemony, Democracy, Agonism and Journalism: An Interview with Chantal Mouffe. Journalism Studies, 7(6), 964–975 (http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/3020 in LSE Research Online).
  23. Carragee, M. K., & Roefs, W. (2004). The Neglect of Power in Recent Framing Research. Journal of Communication, 54(2), 214–233.Google Scholar
  24. Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Chang, T. K. (1989). The Impact of Presidential Statements on Press Editorials Regarding U.S. China Policy, 1950–1984. Communication Research, 16, 486–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Choi, S. (2009). The New History and the Old Present: Archival Images in PBS Documentary Battle for Korea. Media, Culture and Society, 31(1), 59–77.Google Scholar
  27. Christians, G. C., Glasser, L. T., McQuail, D., Nordenstreng, K., & Whilte A. R. (2009). Normative Theories of the Media. Champaign, IL: The University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  28. Couldry, N. (2000). The Place of Media Power: Pilgrims and Witnesses of the Media Age. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Couldry, N. (2010). Why Voice Matters: Culture and Politics After Neoliberalism. London, UK: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Couldry, N., & Curran, J. (Eds.). (2003). Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  31. Crouse, T. (1972). The Boys on the Bus: Riding with the Campaign Press Corps. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  32. Curran, J. (1991). Rethinking the Media as a Public Sphere. In P. Dahlgren & C. Sparks (Eds.), Communication and Citizenship: Journalism and the Public Sphere. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Curran, J. (Eds.). (2010). Media and Society (5th ed.). London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  34. Curran, J. (2011). Media and Democracy. Oxford: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Dahlgren, P. (2009). Media and Political Engagement: Citizens, Communication, and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. De Beer, S. A., & Merrill, C. J. (Eds.). (2009). Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  37. De Vreese, H. C. (2005). News Framing: Theory and Typology. Information Design Journal and Document Design, 13(1), 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Downey, J., & Fenton, N. (2003). New Media, Counter Publicity and the Public Sphere. New Media and Society, 5(2), 185–202.Google Scholar
  39. El Richani, S. (2012). Comparing Media Systems in the ‘West’ and Beyond. Global Media Journal (German Edition), 2(2), 1–7. Retrieved from https://www.db-thueringen.de/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/dbt_derivate_00026501/GMJ4_Richani_final.pdf.
  40. Entman, R. M. (1991). Framing U.S. Coverage of International News: Contrasts in Narratives of KAL and Iran Air Incidents. Journal of Communication, 41, 6–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing, Towards Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm. Journal of Communication, 414(4), 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Entman, R. M. (2004). Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. Ettema, S. J. (2007). Journalism as Reason-Giving: Deliberative Democracy, Institutional Accountability, News Media’s Mission. Political Communication, 24(2), 143–160.Google Scholar
  44. Gamson, W. A., & Modigliani, A. (1989). Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power: A Constructionist Approach. American Journal of Society, 95, 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Garnham, N. (1986 [2001]). Contribution to a Political Economy of Mass Communication. In M. G. Durham & D. M. Kellner (Eds.), Media and Cultural Studies: KeyWorks, Revised Edition (pp. 201–229). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Google Scholar
  46. Gitlin, T. (1980). The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkely: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  47. Goffman, E. (1974). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Gulati, G. J., Just, M. R., & Crigler, A. N. (2004). News Coverage of Political Campaigns. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), The Handbook of Political Communication Research. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  49. Gunther, A., & Christen, C. (1999). Effects of News Slant and Base Rate Information on Perceived Public Opinion. Journalism and Mass Communications Quarterly, 76(2), 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hall, S. (1982). The Rediscovery of ‘Ideology’. In M. Gurevitch, T. Benneett, J. Curran, & J. Woollacott (Eds.), Culture, Society and Media. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  51. Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., & Roberts, B. (1978). Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State and Law and Order. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hallin, D. C. (1989). The “Uncensored War”: The Media and Vietnam. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Hansen, K., Ward, J., & McLeod, D. (1987). Role of the Newspaper Library in the Production of News. Journalism Quarterly, 64, 714–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hartley, J. (1982). Understanding News. London and New York: Methuen.Google Scholar
  56. Hayes, D., & Guardino, M. (2010). Whose Views Made the News? Media Coverage and the March to War in Iraq. Political Communication, 27(1), 59–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Henry, F., & Tator, C. (2000, March). Racist Discourse in Canada’s English Print Media. Toronto: Canadian Race Relations Foundation. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c66d/03d4d67c5978a349cefdf28bae5ddee7975b.pdf.
  58. Hopkin, J. (2006). Conceptualizing Political Clientelism: Political Exchange and Democratic Theory, APSA Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, 31 August–3 September, Panel 46-18 ‘Concept Analysis: Unpacking Clientelism, Governance and Neoliberalism’. (http://personal.lse.ac.uk/hopkin/apsahopkin2006.pdf).
  59. Horvit, M. (2010). Global News Agencies and the Pre-war Debate: A Content Analysis. In R. D. Berenger (Ed.), Global Media Go to War: Role of News and Entertainment Media During the 2003 Iraq War. Spokane, WA: Marquette Books. Retrieved from http://www.marquettebooks.com/images/JGMC_Volume_3_2010.pdf#page=107.
  60. Irwin, G. A., & van Holsteyn, J. J. M. (2002). According to the Polls: The Influence of Opinion Polls on Expectations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 66(1), 92–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keane, J. (2011, September 1). The Hidden Media Powers that Undermine Democracy, The Conversation. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/the-hidden-media-powers-that-undermine-democracy-3028.
  62. Kellner, D. (1992). The Persian Gulf TV War. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  63. Kepplinger, H., Donsbach, W., Brosius, H.-B., & Staab, J. F. (1989). Media Tone and Public Opinion: A Longitudinal Study of Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Chancellor Kohl. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 1, 327–342.Google Scholar
  64. Kuypers, A. J. (2002). Press Bias and Politics: How the Media Frame Controversial Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  65. Kuypers, A. J. (Ed.). (2009). Rhetorical Criticism: Perspectives in Action. Lanham, MD: Lexington.Google Scholar
  66. Lim, J., & Seo, H. (2009). Frame Flow Between Government and the News Media and Its Effects on the Public: Framing of North Korea. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 21(2), 204–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lippmann, W. (1922). Public Opinion. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  68. McCombs, M. (2004). Setting the Agenda: The Mass Media and Public Opinion. New York: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  69. McCombs, M., & Estrada, G. (1997). The News Media and the Pictures in Our Heads. In S. Iyengar & R. Reeves (Eds.), Do the Media Govern?: Politicians, Voters and Reporters in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  70. McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. L. (1972, Summer). The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176–185.Google Scholar
  71. McCombs, M., Llamas, J., Lopez-Escobar, E., & Rey, F. (1998). Candidate Images in Spanish Elections: Second-Level Agenda-Setting Effects. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 74(4), 703–717.Google Scholar
  72. McQuail, D. (2005). Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini, Comparing Media Systems Three Models of Media and Politics. European Journal of Communication, 20(2), 266–267.Google Scholar
  73. McQuail, D. (2010). McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory (6th ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  74. Min, Y. (2004). Campaign Agenda Formation in the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election-Issue Ownership and Tone of Issue Presentation. Candidate Agenda Setting, Media & Society, 12(3), 125–156.Google Scholar
  75. Murdock, G., & Golding, P. (1977). Capitalism, Communication and Class Relations. In J. Curran, M. Gurevitch, & J. Woollacott (Eds.), Mass Communication and Society. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  76. Page, B. I., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1983). Effects of Public Opinion on Policy. American Political Science Review, 77(1), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pan, Z., & Kosicki, G. M. (1993). Framing Analysis: An Approach to News Discourse. Political Communication, 10(1), 55–75.Google Scholar
  78. Park, M.-J., & Curran, J. (2000). De-westernizing Media Studies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  79. Park, M.-J., Kim, C.-N., & Sohn, B.-W. (2000). Modernization, Globalization, and the Powerful State: The Korean Media. In M.-J. Park & J. Curran (Eds.), De-westernizing Media Studies. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
  80. Paterson, C. (1998). Global News Agencies. In O. Boyd-Barrett & T. Rantanen (Eds.), The Globalization of News. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  81. Paterson, C. (2005). News Agency Dominance in International News on the Internet. In D. Skinner, J. R. Compton, & M. Gasher (Eds.), Converging Media, Diverging Politics: A Political Economy of News Media in the United States and Canada. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  82. Patterson, E. T., & Donsbach, W. (1996). News Decisions: Journalists as Partisan Actors. Political Communication, 13, 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Petley, J. (2004). Fourth-Rate Estate. Index on Censorship, 33(2), 68–75.Google Scholar
  84. Petley, J. (Eds.). (2013). Media and Public Shaming: Drawing the Boundaries of Disclosure. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  85. Petry, F., & Mendelsohn, M. (2004). Public Opinion and Policy Making in Canada 1994–2001. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 37(3), 505–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Potschka, C. (2012). Toward a Market in Broadcasting: Communications Policy in the UK and Germany. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  87. Rantanen, T. (2004). European News Agencies and Their Sources in the Iraq War Coverage. In S. Allan & B. Zelizer (Eds.), Reporting War: Journalism in Wartime. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. Rantanen, T., & Boyd-Barrett, O. (2009). Global and National News Agencies. In S. A. De Beer & C. J. Merrill (Eds.), Global Journalism: Topical Issues and Media Systems (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  89. Reese, S., Grant, A., & Danielian, L. (1994). The Structure of News Sources on Television: A Network Analysis of CBS News, Nightline, McNeil-Lehrer and This Week with David Brinkley. Journal of Communication, 44(2), 84–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sa, E.-S. (2009). Factors Influencing Freedom of the Press in South Korea. Asian Social Science, 5(3), 3–24.Google Scholar
  91. Scheufele, A. D. (2000). Agenda-Setting, Priming and Framing Revisited: Another Look at Cognitive Effects of Political Communication. Mass Communication and Society, 3(2), 297–316.Google Scholar
  92. Scheufele, A. D., & Tewksbury, D. (2007). Framing, Agenda-Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 9–20.Google Scholar
  93. Schiller, H. I. (1992). Mass Communications and American Empire (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  94. Schudson, M. (1978). Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  95. Schudson, M. (1989). How Culture Works: Perspectives from Media Studies on the Efficacy of Symbols. Theory and Society, 18(2), 153–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schudson, M. (1991, Spring). Delectable Materialism: Were the Critics of the Consumer Culture Wrong All Along? The American Prospect, 5, 26–35.Google Scholar
  97. Schudson, M. (2011). The Sociology of News (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  98. Shoemaker, J. (2006). News and Newsworthiness: A Commentary. Communications, 31(1), 105–111.Google Scholar
  99. Shoemaker, J., & Reese, S. D. (1991). Mediating the Message: Theories of Influence on Mass Media Content. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  100. Shoemaker, J., & Reese, S. D. (1996). Mediating the Message: Theories of Influence on Mass Media Content (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  101. Siebert, F., Peterson, T., & Schramm, W. (1956). Four Theories of the Press: The Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility, and Soviet Communist Concepts of What the Press Should Be and Do. Urbana: University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  102. Sigal, V. L. (1973). Reporters and Officials: The Organization and Politics of Newsmaking. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.Google Scholar
  103. Sohn, Y.-J. (2004). The Effects of Media Use on Conservative and Progressive Opinion. The Korean Society for Journalism & Communication Studies, 8(2), 240–267.Google Scholar
  104. Soley, L. (1992). The News Shapers: The Sources Who Explain the News. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  105. Song, Y. (2007). Internet News Media and Issue Development: A Case Study on the Roles of Independent Online News Services as Agenda-Builders for Anti-US Protests in South Korea. New Media & Society, 9(1), 71–92.Google Scholar
  106. Sontag, S. (2004). Regarding the Pain of Others. London, UK: Penguin.Google Scholar
  107. Steele, J. (1995, Winter). Experts and Opinion Bias of the Persian Gulf War. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 72(4), 799–812.Google Scholar
  108. Stromback, J. (2005). In Search of a Standard: Four Models of Democracy and Their Normative Implications for Journalism. Journalism Studies, 6(3), 331–345.Google Scholar
  109. Takeshita, T. (2006). Current Critical Problems in Agenda-Setting Research. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 18(3), 275–296.Google Scholar
  110. Tankard, J. W., Handerson, L., Sillberman, J., Bliss, K., & Ghanem, S. (1991, August 7–10). Media Frames: Approaches to Conceptualization and Measurement. Paper presented at the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  111. Thussu, D. K. (1997). How Media Manipulates Truth About Terrorism. Economic and Political Weekly, 32(6), 264–267.Google Scholar
  112. Thussu, D. K. (2000). International Communication: Continuity and Change. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  113. Tuchman, G. (1973). Making News by Doing Work: Routinizing the Unexpected. American Journal of Sociology, 79, 110–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tuchman, G. (1976). Telling Stories. Journal of Communication, 26(4), 93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tuchman, G. (1978). Making News: A Study in the Construction of Reality. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  116. Tunstall, J. (1994). The Media Are American: Anglo-American Media in the World (2nd ed.). London, UK: Constable.Google Scholar
  117. Vliegenthart, R., & Zoonen, L. (2011). Power to the Frame: Bringing Sociology Back to Frame Analysis. European Journal of Communication, 26(2), 101–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Waisbord, R. S. (2002). Journalism, Risk and Patriotism. In B. Zelizer & S. Allan (Eds.), Journalism After September 11 (pp. 201–219). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Walgrave, S., & Van Aelst, P. (2006). The Mass Media’s Political Agenda-Setting Power: Toward a Preliminary Theory. Journal of Communication, 56(1), 88–109.Google Scholar
  120. Weaver, D., & Wilhoit, G. (1996). The American Journalist in the 1990s: U.S. News People at the End of an Era. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  121. Williams, R. (1980). Problems in Materialism and Culture. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  122. Willnat, L., Weaver, H., & Choi, J.-H. (2013). The Global Journalist in the Twenty-First Century. Journalism Practice, 7(2), 1–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miri Moon
    • 1
  1. 1.Sookmyung Women’s UniversitySeoul, Soul-t’ukpyolsiKorea (Republic of)

Personalised recommendations