Energy Supply Models

  • Hooman Farzaneh


The primary goal of using the energy supply model is to study the supply alternatives to meet the given useful energy demand. A schematic representation of all available energy extraction, processing, and conversion technologies required to deliver various forms of primary energy to the end-user level is described by RES (Reference Energy System). The RES is a way of representing the activities and relationships of an energy system, depicting the energy demands, energy conversion technologies, fuel mixes, and resources required to satisfy energy demands (Fig. 4.1). It usually includes the following levels:

Useful energy (demand level)


Final energy (after distribution)


Final energy (after transmission)


Secondary energy


Primary energy


Energy resources


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hooman Farzaneh
    • 1
  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering SciencesKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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