Mechanical Structures: Mathematical Modeling

  • Aydin AziziEmail author
  • Poorya Ghafoorpoor Yazdi
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


The organization and arrangement of irrelated or distributed elements in a system or an object is defined as mechanical structure. The elements in a mechanical structure can exhibit the characteristics of different parameters. In order to investigate the feature of a mechanical structure many factors should be considered and defined. This chapter aims to introduce a basic definition of mechanical structures with focusing on vehicle and its suspension system as the main mechanical structure target.


  1. 1.
    S.R. Singiresu, Mechanical Vibrations (Addison Wesley, 1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.G. Eisenhauer, Degrees of freedom. Teaching Statistics 30(3), 75–78 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.F. Steidel, An introduction to mechanical vibrations (Wiley, New York, 1979)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    G.R. Fowles, G.L. Cassiday, Analytical Mechanics (Saunders College, 1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.P. French, Vibrations and Waves (CRC press, 1971)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. Matthaeus, M. Goldstein, Low-frequency 1 f noise in the interplanetary magnetic field. Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(4), 495 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Sarkani, L.D. Lutes, Stochastic Analysis of Structural and Mechanical Vibrations (Prentice Hall, 1997)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Feldman, Hilbert transform in vibration analysis. Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 25(3), 735–802 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.G. Phadke, J. S. Thorp, Synchronized Phasor Measurements and Their Applications (Springer, 2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.C. Fuller, S. Elliott, P.A. Nelson, Active Control of Vibration (Academic Press, 1996)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    A.K. Chopra, Dynamics of Structures. Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Ogata, System Dynamics (Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.C. Arya, M.W. O’neill, G. Pincus, Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines (Gulf Publishing Company, Books Division, 1979)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.M. Fateh, S.S. Alavi, Impedance control of an active suspension system. Mechatronics 19(1), 134–140 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Tamboli, S. Joshi, Optimum design of a passive suspension system of a vehicle subjected to actual random road excitations. J. Sound Vib. 219(2), 193–205 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.L. Phillips, H.T. Nagle, Digital Control System Analysis and Design (Prentice Hall Press, 2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Ahmad, Y.M. Sam, N.M.A. Ghani, F.K. Elektrik, An Observer Design for Active Suspension System (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    X. Xue et al., in Study of Art of Automotive Active Suspensions. Power Electronics Systems and Applications (PESA), 2011 4th International Conference on (IEEE, 2011), pp. 1–7Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. Yagiz, Y. Hacioglu, Backstepping control of a vehicle with active suspensions. Control Eng. Pract. 16(12), 1457–1467 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    A. Agharkakli, G.S. Sabet, A. Barouz, Simulation and analysis of passive and active suspension system using quarter car model for different road profile. Int. J. Eng. Trends Technol. 3(5), 636–644 (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Gupta, J. Jendrzejczyk, T. Mulcahy, J. Hull, Design of electromagnetic shock absorbers. Int. J. Mech. Mater. Des. 3(3), 285–291 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Q. Zhou, Research and Simulation on New Active Suspension Control System (2013)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Azizi, Computer-based analysis of the stochastic stability of mechanical structures driven by white and colored noise. Sustainability 10(10), 3419 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Ashkzari, A. Azizi, Introducing genetic algorithm as an intelligent optimization technique, in Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 568 (Trans Tech Publications, 2014), pp. 793–797Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Azizi, Introducing a novel hybrid artificial intelligence algorithm to optimize network of industrial applications in modern manufacturing. Complexity 2017 (2017)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Azizi, Hybrid artificial intelligence optimization technique, in Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Industry 4.0 (Springer, 2019), pp. 27–47Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Azizi, Modern Manufacturing, in Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Industry 4.0 (Springer, 2019), pp. 7–17Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. Azizi, RFID Network Planning, in Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Industry 4.0 (Springer, 2019), pp. 19–25Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Azizi, Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Industry 4.0 (Springer)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. Azizi, F. Entesari, K.G. Osgouie, M. Cheragh, Intelligent Mobile Robot Navigation in an Uncertain Dynamic Environment, in Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 367(Trans Tech Publications, 2013), pp. 388–392Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Azizi, F. Entessari, K.G. Osgouie, A.R. Rashnoodi, Introducing neural networks as a computational intelligent technique, in Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 464 (Trans Tech Publications, 2014), pp. 369–374Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. Azizi, N. Seifipour, Modeling of Dermal wound Healing-Remodeling Phase by Neural Networks, in Computer Science and Information Technology-Spring Conference, 2009. IACSITSC’09. International Association of (IEEE, 2009), pp. 447–450Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. Azizi, A. Vatankhah Barenji, M. Hashmipour, Optimizing radio frequency identification network planning through ring probabilistic logic neurons. Adv. Mech. Eng. 8(8), 1687814016663476 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Azizi, P.G. Yazdi, M. Hashemipour, Interactive design of storage unit utilizing virtual reality and ergonomic framework for production optimization in manufacturing industry. Int. J. Interact. Des. Manuf. (IJIDeM), 1–9 (2018)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Koopialipoor, A. Fallah, D.J. Armaghani, A. Azizi, E.T. Mohamad, Three hybrid intelligent models in estimating flyrock distance resulting from blasting. Eng. Comput., 1–14 (2018)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    K.G. Osgouie, A. Azizi, in Optimizing Fuzzy Logic Controller for Diabetes Type I by Genetic Algorithm. Computer and Automation Engineering (ICCAE), 2010 The 2nd International Conference on, vol. 2 (IEEE, 2010), pp. 4–8Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Rashidnejhad, A.H. Asfia, K.G. Osgouie, A. Meghdari, A. Azizi, Optimal trajectory planning for parallel robots considering time-jerk, in Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 390 (Trans Tech Publications, 2013), pp. 471–477Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Wang, W. Wang, K. Atallah, D. Howe, in Design of a Linear Permanent Magnet Motor for Active Vehicle Suspension. Electric Machines and Drives Conference, 2009. IEMDC’09. IEEE International (IEEE, 2009), pp. 585–591Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Wang, W. Wang, K. Atallah, A linear permanent-magnet motor for active vehicle suspension. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 60(1), 55–63 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    M.S. Kumar, Development of active Suspension System for Automobiles Using PID Controller (2008)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    M. Zhou, H. Jin, W. Wang, A review of vehicle fuel consumption models to evaluate eco-driving and eco-routing. Transp. Res. D: Transp. Environ. 49, 203–218 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    M.A. Nekoui, P. Hadavi, in Optimal Control of an Active Suspension System. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), 2010 14th International (IEEE, 2010), pp. T5-60–T5-63Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EngineeringGerman University of Technology in OmanMuscatOman

Personalised recommendations