Retinal Detachment and PVR

  • Peiquan Zhao


The chapter focuses on clinical characteristics of subtypes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with different stages of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and the relevant surgical treatment strategies. Retinal detachment refers to a separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Based on the underlying cause, retinal detachment can be categorized into three types, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), traction retinal detachment, and exudative retinal detachment. Combined subtypes of retinal detachment can sometimes occur. RRD often causes severe visual loss [1, 2].


  1. 1.
    Kuhn F, Aylward B. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a reappraisal of its pathophysiology and treatment. Ophthalmic Res. 2014;51:15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Theodossiadis PG, Georgalas IG, Emfietzoglou J, et al. Optical coherence tomography findings in the macula after treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments with spared macula preoperatively. Retina. 2003;23(1):69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hilton G, Machemer R, Michels R, et al. The classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmology. 1983;90(2):121–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Di Lauro S, Kadhim MR, Charteris DG, et al. Classifications for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR): an analysis of their use in publications over the last 15 years. J Ophthalmol. 2016;2016:7807596. Epub 2016 Jun 27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Figueroa MS, Corte MD, Sbordone S, et al. Scleral buckling technique without retinopexy for treatment of rhegmatogeneous: a pilot study. Retina. 2002;22(3):288–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pastor JC. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: an overview. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998;43(1):3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lean JS, Stern WH, Irvine AR, et al. Classification of proliferative vitrereotinopathy used in the silicone study. Ophthalmology. 1989;96(6):765–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Machemer R, Aaberg TM, Freeman HM, et al. An updated classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;112(2):159–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Salicone A, Smiddy WE, Venkatraman A, et al. Visual recovery after sclera buckling procedure for retinal detachment. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1734–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eijk ES, Busschbach JJ, Timman R, et al. What made you wait so long? Delays in presentation of retinal detachment: knowledge is related to an attached macula. Acta Ophthalmol. 2016;94(5):434–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim JD, Pham HH, Lai MM, et al. Effect of symptom duration on outcomes following vitrectomy repair of primary macula-off retinal detachments. Retina. 2013;33(9):1931–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tee JJ, Veckeneer M, Laidlaw DA. Persistent subfoveolar fluid following retinal detachment surgery: an SD-OCT guided study on the incidence, aetiological associations, and natural history. Eye (Lond). 2016;30(3):481–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delolme MP, Dugas B, Nicot F, et al. Anatomical and functional macular changes after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with macula off. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153(1):128–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ang GS, Townend J, Lois N. Epidemiology of giant retinal tears in the United Kingdom: the British giant retinal tear epidemiology eye study (BGEES). Retina. 2010;51:4781–7.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ghosh YK, Banerjee S, Savant V, et al. Surgical treatment and outcome of patients with giant retinal tears. Eye (Lond). 2004;18:996–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berrocal MH, Chenworth ML, Acaba LA. Management of giant retinal tear detachments. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2017;12(1):93–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sayman Muslubas I, Hocaoglu M, Ersoz MG, et al. Choroidal thickness in chronic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment before and after surgery, and comparison with acute cases. Int Ophthalmol. 2017; [Epub ahead of print].
  18. 18.
    Alibet Y, Levytska G, Umanets N, et al. Ciliary body thickness changes after preoperative anti-inflammatory treatment in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated by choroidal detachment. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017; [Epub ahead of print].
  19. 19.
    Sharma T, Gopal L, Reddy RK, et al. Primary vitrectomy for combined rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and choroidal detachment with or without oral corticosteroids: a pilot study. Retina. 2005;25(2):152–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wei Y, Wang N, Chen F, Wang H, Bi C, Zu Z, Yang X. Vitrectomy combined with periocular/intravitreal injection of steroids for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment. Retina. 2014;34(1):136–41. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Soheilian M, Ramezani A, Malihi M, et al. Clinical features and surgical outcomes of pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Retina. 2009;29(4):545–51. Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oono Y, Uehara K, Haruta M, et al. Characteristics and surgical outcomes of pediatric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Clin Ophthalmol. 2012;6:939–43. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ranchod TM, Ho LY, Drenser KY, et al. Clinical presentation of familial exudative vitreoretionpathy. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(10):2070–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Custodis E. Treatment of retinal detachment by circumscribed diathermal coagulation and by scleral depression in the area of tear caused by imbedding of a plastic implant. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd Augenarztl Fortbild. 1956;129(4):476–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schepens CL, Okamura ID, Brockhurst RJ. The scleral buckling procedures. I. Surgical techniques and management. AMA Arch Ophthalmol. 1957;58(6):797–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mahdizadeh M, Masoumpour M, Ashraf H. Anatomical retinal reattachment after scleral buckling with and without retinopexy: a pilot study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2008;86(3):297–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lincoff H, Baras I, McLean J. Modifications to the Custodis procedure for retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1965;73:160–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lincoff H, Kreissig I. The treatment of retinal detachment without drainage of subretinal fluid (modifications of the Custodis procedure, Part VI). Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1972;76(5):1221–32.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Adelman RA, Parnes AJ, Michalewska Z, European Vitreo-Retinal Society (EVRS) Retinal Detachment Study Group, et al. Clinical variables associated with failure of retinal detachment repair: the European vitreo-retinal society retinal detachment study report number 4. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(9):1715–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peiquan Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations