Advertisement

Alternative Techniques

  • Krittinee NuttavuthisitEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The previous four chapters explained the major data collection techniques which targeted consumer’s direct responses such as answers to the questions (in individual and group interviews) and observed behaviors and interactions (in ethnography and netnography research). The methods are generally reasonable and productive, particularly if consumers can elaborate their perspectives and have quite communicative (verbal and nonverbal) expressions. Yet in many cases, people do not remember certain situations, they may not be aware of their behaviors and deeper concerns, or they may try to shut off and avoid talking about or reacting on certain sensitive subjects. The various levels of people’s expressiveness may diminish the intensity of responses obtained from the direct research methods such as interviews or observations. These require the support of other tools to study the complexity of behaviors.

References

  1. Alexandra D (2015) The look of silence film review. Vis Anthropol Rev 31(2):203–207Google Scholar
  2. Banks R (1997) Is Asia different? Defining a strategy to serve multi-national clients in the region. Mark Res Today 25(1):4–11Google Scholar
  3. Belk RW (2006). In: Ekstrom K, Brembeck H (eds), Remembrances of thing past: silent voices in collections. European Advances in Consumer Research, Association for Consumer Research, Valdosa, GA, 7:392-397Google Scholar
  4. Belk R (2013) Visual and projective methods in Asian research. Qual Market Res Int J 16(1):94–107Google Scholar
  5. Belk RW, Kozinets RV (2005) Videography in marketing and consumer research. Qual Market Res Int J 8(2):128–141.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750510592418Google Scholar
  6. Belk RW, Pollay RW (1985) Images of ourselves: the good life in twentieth century advertising. J Consum Res 11:887–897Google Scholar
  7. Belk RW, Fischer E, Kozinets R (2013) Qualitative consumer & marketing research. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Berends L (2011) Embracing the visual: using timelines with in-depth interviews on substance use and treatment. Qual Res 16(1):1–9Google Scholar
  9. Berg BL (1998a) Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Pearson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Berg BL (1998b) Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Boston Mass, Allyn and Bacon LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger J (1972) Ways of seeing. Penguin Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Boddy CR (2007) Projective techniques in Taiwan and Asia-Pacific market research. Qual Market Res 10(1):48–62.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750710720396Google Scholar
  13. Bogdan R, Biklen SK (1998) Qualitative research for education an introduction to theories and methods. Allyn and Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolger N, Davis A, Rafaeli E (2003) Diary methods: capturing life as it is lived. Annu Rev Psychol 54:579–616Google Scholar
  15. Chan K (2006) Exploring children’s perceptions of material possessions: a drawing study. Qual Market Res 9(4):352–366.  https://doi.org/10.1108/13522750610689087Google Scholar
  16. Chen S (2016) Cultural technology: a framework for marketing cultural exports. Int Mark Rev 33(1):25–50Google Scholar
  17. Collier J, Collier M (1986) Visual anthropology photography as a research method. University of New Mexico Press, AlbuquerqueGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalbec B (2001) Stage an intervention for the Focus Group. Mark News 46–48Google Scholar
  19. Denzin NK (1978) The Research Act: a theoretical introduction to sociological methods. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Dikotter F (2006) Exotic commodities: modern objects and everyday life in China. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Elliott R, Davies A (2006) Using Oral history methods in consumer research. In: Belk RW (ed) Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Northampton, pp 244–254Google Scholar
  22. Erbaugh MS (2000) Greeting cards in China: mixed language of connections and affections. In: David D (ed) The consumer revolution in urban China. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 171–200Google Scholar
  23. Falls S (2015) The act of killing film review. Vis Anthropol Rev 31(1):111–117Google Scholar
  24. Figueroa SK (2008) The grounded theory and the analysis of audio-visual texts. Int J Soc Res Methodol 11:1–12Google Scholar
  25. Freud S (1911) Psycho-analytic notes on an autobiographical account of a case of paranoia (dementia paranoides). S.E., 12.Google Scholar
  26. Frith K, Cheng H (2009) Symbolic meanings of advertisements in China. In: Cheng H, Chan K (eds) Advertising and Chinese society: impacts and issues. Copenhagen Business School Press, Copenhagen, pp 191–201Google Scholar
  27. Gerth K (2003) China made: consumer culture and the creation of the nation. Harvard University Asia Center, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. Goggin G (2006) Cell phone culture: mobile technology in everyday life. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Golder PN (2000) Historical method in marketing research with new evidence on long-term market share stability. J Mark Res (JMR) 37(2):156–172Google Scholar
  30. Goodson I (2001) The story of life history: origins of the life history method in sociology. Identity Int J Theor Res 1:129–142Google Scholar
  31. Gould S (2013) Multimodal introspection theory. In: Clegg JW (ed) Self-observation in the social sciences. Transaction, PiscatawayGoogle Scholar
  32. Hackley RA, Hackley C (2015) How the hungry ghost mythology reconciles materialism and spirituality in Thai death rituals. Qual Market Res Int J 18(4):427–441.  https://doi.org/10.1108/QMR-08-2014-0073Google Scholar
  33. Harper D (1986) Meaning and work: a study in photo elicitation. Curr Sociol 34(3):24–46Google Scholar
  34. Harper D (2003) Reimagining visual methods: Galileo to Neuromancer. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand Oaks, pp 176–198Google Scholar
  35. Harré R, Van Langenhove L (1999) Positioning theory: moral contexts of intentional action. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  36. Haryanto J, Kashif M, Moutinho L, Pasharibu Y (2017) What if the future never comes? Understanding consumer perceptions of future anticipatory efforts of brands. Asia Pac J Mark Logist 29(3):669–685Google Scholar
  37. Heisley D, Levy S (1991) Autodriving: a photoelicitation technique. J Consum Res 18(3):257–272Google Scholar
  38. Hill RP, Stamey M (1990) The homeless in America: an examination of possessions and consumption behaviors. J Consum Res 17:303–321Google Scholar
  39. Holbrook MB (1987) Mirror, mirror, on the wall, what’s unfair in the reflections on advertising? J Mark 51:95–103.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1251650Google Scholar
  40. Hopkinson GC, Hogg MK (2006) Stories: how they are used and produced in market(ing) research. Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 156–174Google Scholar
  41. Hosoe S (2005) Capturing moment of consumption with smartphone: case study from acapturing meal and snack consumption scenes among Japanese female university students@, In: Yong-Uon Ha, Yi Y, Duluth, MN (eds) AP—Asia Pacific advances in consumer research vol 6, Association for consumer research, pp 291–298Google Scholar
  42. Hubbert J (2014) Appropriating iconicity: why Tank Man Still Matters. Vis Anthropol Rev 30(2):114–126.  https://doi.org/10.1111/var.12042Google Scholar
  43. Imada T, Yussen SR (2012) Reproduction of cultural values: a cross-cultural examination of stories people create and transmit. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 38(1):114–128Google Scholar
  44. Jolley RP, Thomas GV (1995) Children’s sensitivity to metaphorical expression of mood in line drawings. Br J Dev Psychol 13(4):335–346Google Scholar
  45. Kassarjian H (1974) Applications of consumer behavior to the field of advertising. J Advertising 3(3):10–15Google Scholar
  46. Kolar K, Ahmad F, Chan L, Erickson PG (2015) Timeline mapping in qualitative interviews: a study of resilience with marginalized groups. Int J Qual Methods 14(3):13–32Google Scholar
  47. Kozinets RV (2010) Observation methods. Wiley Int Encycl Mark 2:219–226Google Scholar
  48. Kozinets RV (2015) Netnography: redefined. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Kuo JC (ed) (2007) Visual culture in Shanghai 1850s–1930s. New Academic Publishing, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  50. Levy S (1950) Figure drawing as a projective technique. In: Abt KE, Bellak L (eds) Projective psychology. Grove Press, New York, pp 257–297Google Scholar
  51. Manuel P (1993) Cassette culture: popular music and technology in North India. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  52. Martin D, Woodside A (2011) Storytelling research on international visitors: interpreting own experiences in Tokyo. Qual Market Res Int J 14(1):27–54Google Scholar
  53. Mason M, Pavia T (1998) The disruption of the consumer life cycle by serious illness: the case of breast cancer. In: Alba JW, Hutchinson JW (eds) Advances in consumer research, vol 25. Association for Consumer Research, Provo, UT, pp 416–420Google Scholar
  54. Matzner D (2014) Jai Bhim Comrade and the politics of sound in urban Indian visual culture. Vis Anthropol Rev 30(2):127–138.  https://doi.org/10.1111/var.12043Google Scholar
  55. McNeal JU (1992) Kids as customers: a handbook of marketing to children. Lexington Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  56. McNeal JU, Ji MF (2003) Children’s visual memory of packaging. J. Consum Mark 20(4/5):400–427Google Scholar
  57. Minowa Y, Khomenko O, Belk R (2011) Social change and gendered gift giving rituals: a historical analysis of Valentine’s Day in Japan. J Macromarketing 31(1):44–56Google Scholar
  58. Nakano Y (2002) Who initiates the global flow? Japanese popular culture in Asia. Vis Commun 1(2):229–253Google Scholar
  59. Nguyen TDT (2015) Conducting semi-structured interviews with the Vietnamese. Qual Res J 15(1):35–46Google Scholar
  60. Nguyen TDT, Belk RW (2007) This we remember: consuming representation via the web posting of war photographs. Consumption Markets Cult 10:251–291.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10253860701365389Google Scholar
  61. Noland CM (2006) Auto-photography as research practice: identity and self-esteem research. J Res Pract 2(1):M1Google Scholar
  62. Otnes C, Ruth JA et al (2007) 29 Capturing time. In: Belk RW (ed) Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing. Edward Elgar Publishing, UKGoogle Scholar
  63. Pace S (2008) YouTube: an opportunity for consumer narrative analysis? Qual Market Res Int J 11(2):213–226Google Scholar
  64. Patterson A (2005) Processes, relationships, settings, products and consumers: the case for qualitative diary research. Qual Market Res Int J 8(2):142–156Google Scholar
  65. Patterson ML, Markey MA, Somers J (2012) Multiple paths to just ends: using narrative interviews and timelines to explore health equity and homelessness. Int J Qual Methods 11(2):132–151Google Scholar
  66. Pavia T (1993) Dispossession and perceptions of self in late stage HIV infection. Adv Consum Res 20:425–428Google Scholar
  67. Pavia TM, Mason MJ (2004) The reflexive relationship between consumer behavior and adaptive coping. J Consum Res 31:441–454Google Scholar
  68. Piaget J, Inhelder B (1969) The psychology of the child. Routledge and Keegan Paul, LondonGoogle Scholar
  69. Pinard S (1991) A taste of India: on the role of gustation in the Hindu sensorium. In: Howes D (ed) The anthropology of the senses. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, pp 221–230Google Scholar
  70. Polkinghorne J (1987) Philosophy of science: the natural sciences in Christian perspective. Theology 90(735):245–246Google Scholar
  71. Pollay RW (1986) The distorted mirror: reflections on the unentended consequences of advertising. J Market 50:18–36Google Scholar
  72. Pollay RW (1983) Measuring the cultural values manifest in advertising. Curr Issues Res Advertising 6:71–92.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01633392.1983.10505333Google Scholar
  73. Potts R (2015) A conversation with David Mac Dougall: reflections on the childhood and modernity workshop films, vol 31. Wiley-Blackwell.  https://doi.org/10.1111/var.12081Google Scholar
  74. Robinson C (1996) Asian culture: the marketing consequences. J Res Market Res Soc 38(1):55–62Google Scholar
  75. Rook DW (2006) Let’s pretend: projective techniques reconsidered. In: Belk RW (ed) Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing. Edward Elgar, Northampton, pp 143–155Google Scholar
  76. Ryoo W (2009) Globalization, or the logic of cultural hybridization: the case of the Korean wave. Asian J Commun 19(2):137–151Google Scholar
  77. Samuels J (2004) Breaking the ethnographer’s frames: reflections on the use of photo elicitation in understanding Sri Lankan monastic culture. Am Behav Sci 47(12):1528–1550Google Scholar
  78. Schwarz O (2009) Good young Nostalgia. J Consum Cult 9(3):348–376.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540509342045Google Scholar
  79. Schaffner D (2011) Interactive advertising uses and gratifications: acomparative analysis of factors motivating media use for two new product types, In: Alan B, Chris H, Pauline M, Duluth MN (eds) E—European advances in consumer research vol 9, Association for consumer research, pp 590–591Google Scholar
  80. Schroeder JE (1998) Consuming representation: a visual approach to consumer research. In: Barbara BS (ed) Representing consumers: voices, views and visions, Routledge, New York, pp 193–230Google Scholar
  81. Scott S, Miller F, Lloyd K (2006) Doing fieldwork in development geography: research culture and research spaces in Vietnam. Geogr Res 44(1):28–40Google Scholar
  82. Sheridan J, Chamberlain K, Dupuis A (2011) Timelining: visualizing experience. Qual Res 11(5):552–570Google Scholar
  83. Sherry JF, Schouten JW (2002) A role for poetry in consumer research, J Consum Res 29(2):218–234Google Scholar
  84. Sie J, Koh WE, Zainuddin S, Johnson GI (2016) Understanding banking via WeChat diaries. Int J Adv Sci Eng Inf Technol 6(6):982–989Google Scholar
  85. Smith S (1994) Autobiography. In: Davidson CN, Linda WM (eds) The Oxford companion to women’s writing in the United States. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Sobh R, Belk R (2011) Gender privacy in Arab Gulf states: implications for consumption and marketing. In: Sandicki O, Rice G (eds) Handbook of islamic marketing. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 74–96Google Scholar
  87. Sobh R, Belk R, Gressel J (2014) Mimicry and modernity in the Middle East: fashion invisibility and young women of the Arab Gulf consumption markets & culture 17:392–412.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10253866.2013.865166Google Scholar
  88. Steele HS (1990) Marketing research in China: the Hong Kong connection. Market Res Today 18(3):155–165Google Scholar
  89. Sun X et al (2013) Participant experiences of mobile device-based diary studies. Int J Mob Hum Comput Interact (IJMHCI) 5(2):62–83Google Scholar
  90. Thomas ME (2009) Auto-photography. The Ohio State University, ColumbusGoogle Scholar
  91. Viswambharan AP, Priya KR (2016) Documentary analysis as a qualitative methodology to explore disaster mental health: insights from analysing a documentary on communal riots. Qual Res 16(1):43–59.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794114567494Google Scholar
  92. Webb EJ, Campbell DT, Schwartz RD, Sechrest L, Grove JB (1981) Nonreactive measures in the social sciences, 2nd edn. Houghton-Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  93. Wolf G (1991) Construction of gender identity: women in popular tamil magazines. Econ Polit Weekly 26(43):WS71–WS73Google Scholar
  94. Zaltman G (1997) Breaking out of the box: meaning and means. Adv Consum Res 24:12–14Google Scholar
  95. Zhao X, Belk RW (2008) Advertising consumer culture in 1930s Shanghai: globalization and localization in Yuefenpai. J Advertising 37:45–56.  https://doi.org/10.2753/joa0091-3367370204Google Scholar
  96. Zito A (2014) Writing in water, or, evanescence, enchantment and ethnography in a Chinese Urban Park. Vis Anthropol Rev 30(1):11–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sasin Graduate Institute of Business AdministrationChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations