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Noise-Induced Cochlear Synaptopathy and Ribbon Synapse Regeneration: Repair Process and Therapeutic Target

  • Jian WangEmail author
  • Shankai Yin
  • Hengchao Chen
  • Lijuan Shi
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1130)

Abstract

The synapse between the inner hair cells (IHCs) and the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in mammalian cochleae is characterized as having presynaptic ribbons and therefore is called ribbon synapse. The special molecular organization is reviewed in this chapter in association with the functional feature of this synapse in signal processing. This is followed by the review on noise-induced damage to this synapse with a focus on recent reports in animal models in which the effect of brief noise exposures is observed without causing significant permanent threshold shift (PTS). In this regard, the potential mechanism of the synaptic damage by noise and the impact of this damage on hearing are summarized to clarify the concept of noise-induced hidden hearing loss, which is defined as the functional deficits in hearing without threshold elevation. A controversial issue is addressed in this review as whether the disrupted synapses can be regenerated. Moreover, the review summarizes the work of therapeutic research to protect the synapses or to promote the regeneration of the synapse after initial disruption. Lastly, several unresolved issues are raised for investigation in the future.

Keywords

Noise-induced hidden hearing loss Ribbon synapses Synapse regeneration Neurotrophins 

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jian Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shankai Yin
    • 2
  • Hengchao Chen
    • 2
  • Lijuan Shi
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Communication Science and DisordersDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Otolaryngology Research Institute6th Affiliated Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyMedical College of Southeast UniversityNanjingChina

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