Advertisement

Fostering Organisational Citizenship Behaviour in Asia: The Mediating Roles of Trust and Job Satisfaction

  • Sen SendjayaEmail author
  • Andre A. Pekerti
  • Brian K. Cooper
  • Cherrie Jiuhua Zhu
Chapter

Abstract

This study examines the relationships between servant leadership (SL) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) as mediated by trust and job satisfaction in the context of China and Indonesia. Structural equation modeling analyses show that trust mediates the relationship between SL and OCB in the Chinese and Indonesian samples, whereas job satisfaction mediates only in Indonesia. Findings are discussed in relation to the national contexts found in China and Indonesia, as well as, implications for managerial practice.

Keywords

Organizational citizenship behavior Servant leadership Trust Job satisfaction China Indonesia 

References

  1. Babcock-Roberson, M. E., & Strickland, O. J. (2010). The relationship between charismatic leadership, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Journal of Psychology, 144, 313–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bai, Y., Li, P., & Xi, Y. (2012). ‘The distinctive effects of dual-level leadership behaviors on employees’ trust in leadership: an empirical study from China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 213–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbuto, J. E., & Wheeler, D. W. (2006). Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group and Organization Management, 31, 300–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnette, J. J. (2000). Effects of stem and likert response option reversals on survey internal consistency: If you feel the need, there is a better alternative to using those negatively worded items. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 361–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (pp. 389–444). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  6. Chan, J., & Pun, N. (2010). Suicide as protest for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers: Foxconn global capital, and the state. Asia-Pacific Journal, 37, 2–10.Google Scholar
  7. Chen, C. C., & Chiu, S. F. (2008). An integrative model linking supervisor support and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Business Psychology, 23, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen, M. J. (2002). Transcending paradox: The ‘middle way’ perspective. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19, 179–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, T. C., Chang, P., & Yeh, C. (2003). The study of career needs, career development programmes and job satisfaction levels of R&D personnel: The case of Taiwan. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14, 1001–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, Y. C. (2001). Chinese values, health and nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 36, 270–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, Z. X., Aryee, S., & Lee, C. (2005). Test of a mediation model of perceived organizational support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choi, Y., & Yoon, J. (2005). ‘Effects of leaders’ self-sacrificial behavior and competency on followers’ attribution of charismatic leadership among Americans and Koreans. Current Research in Social Psychology, 11, 51–69.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, A. (2006). The relationship between multiple commitments and organizational citizenship behavior in Arab and Jewish Culture. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 105–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colquitt, J. A., Scott, B. A., & LePine, J. A. (2007). Trust, trustworthiness, and trust propensity: A meta-analytic test of their unique relationships with risk taking and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 909–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooke, F. L. (2009). A decade of transformation of HRM in China: A review of literature and suggestions for future studies. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 47, 6–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cross, S. E., Bacon, P. L., & Morris, M. L. (2000). The relational-interdependent self-construal and relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 791–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dernberger, R. F. (1982). The Chinese search for the path of self-sustained growth in the 1980’s: An assessment. In U.S. congress joint economic committee’s compendium: China under the four modernisations (pp. 19–76). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  18. Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 57, 61–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Farh, J. L. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviour in the Poeple’s Republic of China. Organization Science, 15, 241–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fletcher, R., & Fang, T. (2006). Assessing the impact of culture on relationship creation and network formation in Asian emerging markets. European Journal of Marketing, 40, 430–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. French, D. C., Pidada, S., & Victor, A. (2005). Friendships of Indonesian and United States Youth. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29, 304–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18, 223–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Foote, D. A., & Tang, T. L. (2008). Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: does team commitment make a difference in self-directed teams? Management Decision, 46, 933–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 549–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. (1974). The job diagnostic survey: An instrument for the diagnosis of jobs and the evaluation of job redesign projects. Technical report 4, Yale University, Dept of Administrative Sciences.Google Scholar
  27. Hale, J. R., & Fields, D. L. (2007). Exploring servant leadership across cultures: A study of followers in Ghana and the USA. Leadership, 3, 397–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Han, Y., Kakabadse, N. K., & Kakabadse, A. (2010). Servant Leadership in the People’s Republic of China: A case study of the public sector. Journal of Management Development, 29, 265–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Helburn, I. B., & Shearer, J. C. (1984). Human Resources and Industrial relations in China: A time of ferment. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 38, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoffman, B. J., Blair, C. A., Meriac, J. P., & Woehr, D. J. (2007). Expanding the criterion domain? A quantitative review of the OCB literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 555–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofstede, G. (1991). Culture and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  32. Horn Jr., T. W. (2005). Developmental processes critical the formation of servant leaders in China. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Andrews University, School of Business Administration.Google Scholar
  33. Hsu, J., Hsu, J., Huang, S., Leong, L., & Li, M. A. (2003). Are leadership styles linked to turnover intention: An examination in Mainland China. Journal of American Academy of Business, 3, 37–43.Google Scholar
  34. Ilies, R., Fulmer, I. S., Spitzmuller, M., & Johnson, M. (2009). Personality and citizenship behavior: The mediating role of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 945–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., & Brett, J. M. (2006). A tale of two methods. Organizational Research Methods, 9, 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Joseph, E. E., & Winston, B. E. (2005). A correlation of servant leadership leader trust, and organizational trust. Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 26, 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J., Chen, Z., & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformation leaders: A cross-level cross-cultural examination. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 744–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kirkman, B. L., Lowe, K. B., & Gibson, C. B. (2006). A quarter century of culture’s consequences: A review of the empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural value framework. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 285–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modelling (4th ed.). Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Koentjaraningrat. (1985). Javanese culture. Singapore: Oxford.Google Scholar
  41. Kwantes, C., Karam, C. M., Kuo, B. C. H., & Towson, S. (2008). Culture’s influence on the perception of OCB as in-role or extra-role. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 229–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lam, S. S. K., Chun, H., & Law, K. S. (1999). Organizational citizenship behavior: Comparing perspectives of supervisors and subordinates across four international samples. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 594–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lau, D. C., Liu, J., & Fu, P. P. (2007). Feeling trusted by business leaders in China: Antecedents and the mediating role of value congruence. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 24, 321–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee, Y., & Chang, H. (2008). Relations between team work and innovation in organizations and the job satisfaction of employees: A factor analytic study. International Journal of Management, 25, 732–739.Google Scholar
  45. Lewis, M. W. (2000). Exploring paradox: Toward a more comprehensive guide. Academy of Management Review, 25, 760–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li, J., Fu, P., Chow, I., & Peng, T. K. (2002). Societal development and the change of leadership style in oriental chinese societies. Journal of Developing Societies, 18, 46–63.Google Scholar
  47. Liden, R. C. (2012). Leadership research in Asia: A brief assessment and suggestions for the future. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29, 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Zhao, H., & Henderson, D. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. Leadership Quarterly, 19, 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lin, L. H., & Ho, Y. L. (2010). Guanxi and OCB: The Chinese cases. Journal of Business Ethics, 96, 285–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Luo, Y. D. (2000). Guanxi and business. Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. (2003). Authentic leadership: A positive development approach. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 241–258). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.Google Scholar
  52. MacKinnon, D. P., Fritz, M. S., Williams, J., & Lockwood, C. M. (2007). Distribution of the product confidence limits for the indirect effect: Program PRODCLIN. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 384–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Magnis-Suseno, F. (1997). Javanese ethics and world-view: The Javanese idea of the good life. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.Google Scholar
  54. Mandle, J. R. (1993). Strategies of change in paternalistic socialism: The case of China. International Journal of Social Economics, 11, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mayer, D. M., Bardes, M., & Piccolo, R. F. (2008). Do servant leaders satisfy follower needs? An organizational justice perspective. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17, 180–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). an integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20, 709–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mo, F. L., & Huang, T. Y. (2010). ‘高管告状记 (The case of senior executives’ complain)’, 人力资源开发与管理 (Human Resources Development and Management), 5, 41–50.Google Scholar
  58. Moorman, R. H., & Blakely, G. L. (1995). Individualism-collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 127–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Neubert, M., Kacmar, K., Carlson, D., Roberts, J., & Chonko, L. (2008). Regulatory focus as a mediator of the influence of initiating structure and servant leadership on employee behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1220–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Newell, S., Tansley, C., & Huang, J. (2004). Social capital and knowledge integration in an ERP project team: The importance of bridging and bonding. British Journal of Management, 15, 543–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Noesjirwan, J. (1978). A rule-based analysis of cultural differences in social behaviour: Indonesia and Australia. International Journal of Psychology, 13, 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Oerter, R., Oerter, R., Agostiani, H., Kim, H. O., & Wibowo, S. (1996). The concept of human nature in east Asia: Etic and Emic characteristics. Culture and Psychology, 2, 9–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Organ, D. W. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior: It’s construct clean-up time. Human Performance, 10, 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Organ, D. W., & Ryan, K. (1995). A meta-analytic review of attitudinal and dispositional predictors of organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 48, 775–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Paik, Y., Vance, C. M., & Stage, H. D. (2000). A test of assumed cluster homogeneity for performance appraisal management in four Southeast Asian countries. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11, 736–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Paine, J. B., & Organ, D. W. (2000). The cultural matrix of organizational citizenship behavior: Some preliminary conceptual and empirical observations. Human Resource Management Review, 10, 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Parnell, M. F. (2005). Chinese Business Guanxi: An organization or non-organization? Journal of Organisational Transformation and Social Change, 2, 29–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pekerti, A. A., & Sendjaya, S. (2010). Exploring servant leadership across cultures: Comparative study in Australia and Indonesia. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 754–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pekerti, A. A. (2008). The interdependent family-centric career: Career perspective of the overseas Chinese in Indonesia. Career Development Quarterly, 56, 362–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Peterson, S. J., Galvin, B. M., & Lange, D. (2012). CEO servant leadership: Exploring executive characteristics and firm performance. Personnel Psychology, 65, 565–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Piccolo, R. F., & Colquitt, J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 327–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Bommer, W. H. (1996). Transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership as determinants of employee satisfaction commitment, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management, 22, 259–298.Google Scholar
  74. Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors, and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Resick, C. J., Hanges, P. J., Dickson, M. W., & Mitchelson, J. K. (2006). A cross-cultural examination of the endorsement of ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 63, 345–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rifai, H. A. (2005). A test of the relationships among perceptions of justice, job satisfaction, affective commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 7, 131–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S., & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A coss-discipline view of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23, 393–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S. K., & Peng, A. C. (2011). Cognition-based and affect-based trust as mediators of leader behavior influences team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 863–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sendjaya, S., & Cooper, B. (2011). Servant leadership behavior scale: A hierarchical model and test of construct validity. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20, 416–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sendjaya, S., Sarros, J. C., & Santora, J. C. (2008). Defining and measuring servant leadership behaviour in organizations. Journal of Management Studies, 45, 402–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Soemarjan, S. (1975). The cultural background of the Indonesian businessman. Economy and Finance Indonesia, 23, 95–100.Google Scholar
  82. Sun, L. Y., Aryee, S., & Law, K. S. (2007). High-performance human resource practices, citizenship behaviour, and organizational performance: A relational perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 558–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tan, H., & Tan, C. S. (2000). Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor and trust in organization. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126, 241–260.Google Scholar
  84. Van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37, 1228–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Walumbwa, F. O., Hartnell, C. A., & Oke, A. (2010). Servant Leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behavior: A cross-level investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 517–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang, H., Law, K. S., Hackett, R. D., Wang, D., & Chen, Z. X. (2005). Leader-Member exchange as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 420–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Warner, M. (2010). In search of confucian HRM: Theory and practice in greater China and beyond. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 2053–2078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wat, D., & Shaffer, M. A. (2005). Equity and relationship quality influences on organizational citizenship behaviors. Personnel Review, 34, 406–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wei, G., Qin, X., & Qin, Y. (2011). 企业人力资源风险管理 : 富士康12 连跳的启示 (Management of corporate human resource risks: Implications of 12 consecutive suicides in Foxconn). 商业研究 (Commercial Research), 410, 64–67.Google Scholar
  90. Westwood, R., Chan, A., & Linstead, S. (2004). Theorizing Chinese employment relations comparatively: Exchange, reciprocity and the moral economy. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 21, 365–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Whitener, E. M., Brodt, S. E., Korsgaard, M. A., & Werner, J. M. (1998). Managers as initiators of trust: An exchange relationship framework for understanding managerial trustworthy behavior. Academy of Management Review, 23, 513–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Williams, L. J., Edwards, J. R., & Vandenberg, R. J. (2003). Recent advances in causal modeling methods for organizational and management research. Journal of Management, 29, 903–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Xu, Z. (2011). 富士康人力资源管理反思及其启示 (Retrospection on the human resource management in Foxconn and its implications). 企业经济 (Enterprise Economics), 365, 1–3.Google Scholar
  94. Yuan, N. (2010). 富士康多名员工自杀的背后- 组织关系的协调 (Reasons behind the suicides of Foxconn employees: The relationship between organisation and employees). 经营管理者(Business Managers), 9, 71–72.Google Scholar
  95. Zamet, J. M., & Bovarnick, M. E. (1986). Employee relations for multinational companies in China. Columbia Journal of World Business, 21, 13–19.Google Scholar
  96. Zhou, K. Z., Gao, G. Y., Yang, Z., & Zhou, N. (2005). Developing strategic orientation in China: Antecedents and consequences of market and innovation orientations. Journal of Business Research, 58, 1049–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhu, C. J. (2005). Human Resource Management in China: Past, Current and Future HR Practices in the Industrial Sector. London and New York: Routledge Curzon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sen Sendjaya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andre A. Pekerti
    • 2
  • Brian K. Cooper
    • 3
  • Cherrie Jiuhua Zhu
    • 3
  1. 1.Swinburne Business SchoolSwinburne University of TechnologyMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.UQ Business SchoolUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of ManagementMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations