Brassinosteroids in Microalgae: Application for Growth Improvement and Protection Against Abiotic Stresses
Brassinosteroids have been found in a broad spectrum of microalgae, their biological activities correspond to the function in higher plants. Studies on the endogenous brassinosteroids suggest that the operation of the early and late C6-oxidation pathways, lead to brassinolide existence in algae. The growth and development of algae under the influence of brassinosteroids are unusually dynamic, despite the application of micromolar concentrations. These compounds regulate every aspect of algal life, from formation during development via stimulation of metabolite synthesis to abiotic stress responses, such as heavy metal action, salt and thermal stress. The relationship between brassinosteroids and the other well-known plant hormones has been explored. This chapter summarizes the studies of brassinosteroids on algal cultures in the last three decades.
KeywordsActivity Anti-stress Protection Biosynthesis Distribution
Author is grateful to Adam Bajguz for an excellent assisting during the text edition in LaTeX.
- Bajguz, A. (2009b). Isolation and characterization of brassinosteroids from algal cultures of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Trebouxiophyceae). Journal of Plant Physiology, 166, 1946–1949.Google Scholar
- Bajguz, A., & Czerpak, R. (1996). Effect of brassinosteroids on growth and proton extrusion in the alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 15, 153–156.Google Scholar
- Bajguz, A., & Czerpak, R. (1998). Physiological and biochemical role of brassinosteroids and their structure-activity relationship in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 17, 131–139.Google Scholar
- Bajguz, A., & Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, A. (2013). Synergistic effect of auxins and brassinosteroids on the growth and regulation of metabolite content in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 71, 290–297.Google Scholar
- Bajguz, A., & Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, A. (2014). Interactive effect of brassinosteroids and cytokinins on growth, chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein content in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 80, 176–183.Google Scholar
- Buchanan, B. B., Gruissem, W., & Jones, R. L. (2005). Biochemistry & molecular biology of plants (2nd ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Choudhary, S. P., Yu, J. Q., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Shinozaki, K., & Tran, L. S. P. (2012). Benefits of brassinosteroid crosstalk. Trends in Plant Science, 17, 594–605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2012.05.012.
- Fradique, M., Batista, A. P., Nunes, M. C., Gouveia, L., Bandarra, N. M., & Raymundo, A. (2010). Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products. Part 1: Preparation and evaluation. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture, 90, 1656–1664.Google Scholar
- Gallego-Bartolome, J., Minguet, E. G., Grau-Enguix, F., Abbas, M., Locascio, A., Thomas, S. G., Alabadi, D., & Blazquez, M. A. (2012). Molecular mechanism for the interaction between gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109, 13446–13451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lichtenthaler, H. (1999). The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 50, 47–65.Google Scholar
- Liu, J., Qiu, W., & Xia, D. (2018). Brassinosteroid improves lipid productivity and stress tolerance of Chlorella cells induced by high temperature. Journal of Applied Phycology, 30, 253–260.Google Scholar
- Panis, G., & Carreon, J. R. (2016). Commercial astaxanthin production derived by green alga Haematococcus pluvialis: A microalgae process model and a techno-economic assessment all through production line. Algal Research, 18, 175–190.Google Scholar
- Singh, R., Parihar, P., Singh, M., Bajguz, A., Kumar, J., Singh, S., Singh, V. P., & Prasad, S. M. (2017). Uncovering potential applications of cyanobacteria and algal metabolites in biology, agriculture and medicine: Current status and future prospects. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stirk, W. A., & Staden, J. V. (2014). Plant growth regulators in seaweeds. In Advances in botanical research (pp. 125–159). London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Stirk, W. A., Tarkowská, D., Turecová, V., Strnad, M., & van Staden, J. (2014b). Abscisic acid, gibberellins and brassinosteroids in Kelpak®, a commercial seaweed extract made from Ecklonia maxima. Journal of Applied Phycology, 26, 561–567.Google Scholar
- Talarek-Karwel, M., Bajguz, A., Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, A., & Rajewska, I. (2018). The effect of 24-epibrassinolide on the green alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 124, 175–183.Google Scholar
- Tarkowská, D., & Strnad, M. (2017). Protocol for extraction and isolation of brassinosteroids from plant tissues. In Methods in Molecular Biology (pp. 1–7). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Tate, J. J., Gutierrez-Wing, M. T., Rusch, K. A., & Benton, M. G. (2013). The effects of plant growth substances and mixed cultures on growth and metabolite production of green algae Chlorella sp.: A Review. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 32, 417–428.Google Scholar
- Tran, L. S. P., & Pal, S. (eds) (2014). Phytohormones: A window to metabolism. Signaling and biotechnological applications. New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0491-4.
- Youn, J. H., Kim, T. W., Joo, S. H., Son, S. H., Roh, J., Kim, S., Kim, T. W., & Kim, S. K. (2018). Function and molecular regulation of DWARF1 as a C-24 reductase in brassinosteroid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 69, 1873–1886.Google Scholar