Microorganisms, Organic Matter Recycling and Plant Health

  • R. N. Lakshmipathi
  • B. Subramanyam
  • B. D. Narotham Prasad


Organic manures play a very crucial role in maintaining the good nutrient and soil health. With the need for quality products, there has been an implication to address qualitative traits and in turn influence soil microbial biomass and thus depict the soil health. Importance of organics is increasingly felt these days in sustainable crop production systems as nutrient management in soil and maintenance of soil health are important parameters. Organic matter availability is the major constraint; hence all possible sources of organic matter, namely, the agricultural residues, urban residues, and agro-industrial residues, could be explored for utilization as humus source. Organic additives serve as a long-lasting source of plant nutrients, influencing water-air regimes, minimize degradation, and aid in sustaining soil health. Soil microbial biomass is the living component of soil which is ultimately a source of various nutrients. The soil microbial biomass is an essential component of organic matter turnover. The varieties of microorganisms found in the environment, supporting healthy growth of plants, are in a state of dynamic equilibrium due to balance in the sum total of associative and antagonistic physiological activities of the soil microflora. In this dynamic state, the beneficial microflora decompose organic residues; help the root system in nitrogen fixation, mineralization, and immobilization of nutrients; and also contribute to soil health and texture by secretion of vitamins, growth factors, and extracellular products as soil binding factors along with suppressing soil-borne pathogens. Application of antagonistic microbes through soil amendments in the form of organic manures is one of the effective methods of biocontrol. Therefore among the various attributes, organic matter content also determines the soil quality including its fertility and productivity, since it serves as a long-lasting source of nutrients, minimizes degradation, and aids in sustaining soil health.


Organic recycling Microorganism Sustainable agriculture Bioconversion Nutrient 


  1. Adeniyan, O. N., Ojo, A. O., & Adediran, J. A. (2011). Comparative study of different organic manures and NPK fertilizer for improvement of soil chemical properties and dry matter yield of maize in two different soils. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 2(1), 9–13.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, M. (1977). Symbiotic nitrogen fixation. InIntroduction to Soil Microbiology (pp. 305–330). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Anand, H. S. (1998). Preparation and efficiency of rock phosphate and zinc enriched coir pith compost. M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. R. (1962). Urease activity, ammonia volatilization and related microbiological aspects in some South African soils. Soils Fertility, 26, 196.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, T. H., & Domsch, K. H. (1989). Ratio of microbial biomass carbon to total organic carbon in arable soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry., 21, 471–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ansari, R.A. (2018). Potentiality of some bio-inoculants and organic matter for the sustainable management of disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium Udum on Cajanus cajan, Doctoral Thesis, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.Google Scholar
  7. Ansari, R. A., & Mahmood, I. (2017). Optimization of organic and bio-organic fertilizers on soil properties and growth of pigeon pea. Scientia Horticulturae, 226, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aoyama, M., & Nozawa, T. (1993). Microbial biomass nitrogen and mineralization immobilization process of nitrogen in soils incubated with various organic amendments. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 39(1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asha, N. N. (2003). Effect of incorporation of Chromolaena odorata in Soil microbial biomass and transformation of N and P in soils of southern Karnataka. MM.Sc. thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  10. Ashbolt, N. J., & Line, M. A. (1982). A bench-scale system to study the composting of organic wastes 1. Journal of Environmental Quality, 11(3), 405–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ayanaba, A., Tuckwell, S. B., & Jenkinson, D. S. (1976). The effect of clearing and cropping on organic reserves and biomass of tropical forest soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8, 519–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bagstam, G. (1978). Population changes in microorganisms during composting of sprucebark. I. Influence of temperature control. European Journal Applied Microbiology, 5, 315–330.Google Scholar
  13. Balakrishna, A. N. (2001). Effect of Agricultural practices on nature VA mycorrhizal fungi and microbial biomass in soil. Ph.D thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  14. Balasubramanian, A., Shantaram, Siddaramappa, R., Emminath, V. S., & Rangaswamy, G. (1972). Microbial decomposition of organic matter in an alkali soil of Karnataka. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science, 8, 103–110.Google Scholar
  15. Bardgett, R. (2005). The biology of soil: a community and ecosystem approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Beffa, T., Blanc, M., Marilley, L., Fischer, J. L., Lyon, P. F., & Aragno, M. (1996). Taxonomic and metabolic microbial diversity during composting. InThe science of composting (pp. 149–161). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhalla, H. S. (1966). Population of Fusarium in soils amended with oil cakes. Msc (Agri) thesis, G.B. Panth University of Agriculture and Technology, Panthnagar, UP, India.Google Scholar
  18. Bhattacharya, P., Chakrabarti, K., Chakrabarthy, A., & Battacharya, B. (2001). Microbial biomass and activities of soils amended with municipal solid waste compost. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science, 49, 98–106.Google Scholar
  19. Boby, V. U. (2004). Studies on Glomus mosseae and its interaction with soil yeasts in cowpea. Ph.D. thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  20. Bolton, J. H., Elliott, L. F., Papendeck, R. J., & Bezelicek, D. F. (1985). Soil microbial biomass and selected soil enzyme activities effect of fertilization and cropping practices. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 17, 297–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bouhot, D. (1981). Induction of biological resistance to Pythium in soils by the proportion of organic matter. Soil and Biochemistry, 13, 269–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Boyd, S. A., & Sommers, L. E. (1990). Humic and fulvic acid fractions from sewage. Soil Science, 124(1), 309–312.Google Scholar
  23. Carlyle, R. E., & Norman, A. G. (1941). Microbial thermogenesis in the decomposition of plant materials: Part II. Factors involved. Journal of Bacteriology, 41(6), 699–724.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Chang Yung. (1967). The fungi of wheat straw compost: Biochemical and physiological studies. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 50(4), 667–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chang, Y., & Hudson, H. J. (1967). The fungi of wheat straw compost: I. Ecological studies. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 50(4), 649–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Channabasavanna, A. S., & Abdul Rahaman, S. (2002). Utilization of municipal waste in agriculture. Kissan World, March, pp. 38–39.Google Scholar
  27. Chanter, D. P., & Spencer, D. M. (1974). The importance of thermophilic bacteria in mushroom compost fermentation. Scientia Horticulturae, 2(3), 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chanyasak, V., Katayana, A., Hira, M. F., Mori, S., & Kobota, H. (1983). Effects of compost maturity on growth of Komatasna (Brassica rapa var. pervidis) in Neubauer’s pot 11. growth inhibitory factors and assessment of degree of maturity by org-C/org-N ratio of water extract. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 29(3), 251–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chefetz, B., Hatcher, P. G., Hadar, Y., & Chen, Y. (1996). Chemical and biological characterization of organic matter during composting of municipal solid waste. Journal of Environmental Quality, 25, 776–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chefetz, B., Kerem, Z., Chen, Y., & Hadar, Y. (1998). Isolation and partial characterization of laccase from a thermophilic composted municipal solid waste. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30(8–9), 1091–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chhonkar, P. K., & Tarafdar, J. C. (1984). Accumulation of phosphates in soils. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 32, 266–272.Google Scholar
  32. Chin, W. T., & Kroontje, W. (1963). Urea hydrolysis and subsequent loss of ammonia. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 27, 316–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cook, R. J., & Baker, K. F. (1983). The nature and practice of biological control of plant pathogens (539 pp). St. Paul: American Phytopathology Society.Google Scholar
  34. Crawford, J. H. (1983). Composting of wastes. Process Biochemistry, 18, 14–18.Google Scholar
  35. Dasgupta, A., & Gupta, P. K. S. (1989). Effect of different soil amendments on wilt of pigeon pea [cajancescajan (L) Hutch] caused by Fusarium udum Butler. Beitrage Zurtropischen Land wireschaft and Veterarmedizin, 27, 341–345.Google Scholar
  36. Datta, A. (1998). Quality and efficiency of coir pith super compost. M.Sc. (Agri.), thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  37. Davis, C. L., Hinch, S. A., Donikin, C. J., & Germishnizen, P. J. (1992). Changes in microbial population numbers during the composting of pinebark. Bioresource Technology, 39, 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. de Bertoldi, M. D., Vallini, G. E., & Pera, A. (1983). The biology of composting: A review. Waste Management & Research, 1(2), 157–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Deiana, S. C., Gessa, B., Manunja, R., Rausa, & Seeber, R. (1990). Analytical and spectroscopic characterization of humic acid extracted from sewage sludge, manure and worm composts. Soil Science, 150(1), 419–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Devegowda, G. (1997). Poultry excreta and other wastes as a source of organic manures. Training course on organic farming, UAS, GKVK, pp. 7–11.Google Scholar
  41. Dick, R. P. (1994). Soil enzyme activities as indicators of soil quality. In J. W. Doran, D. C. Coleman, D. F. Bezdicek, & B. A. Stewart (Eds.), Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment (pp. 107–124). Madison: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
  42. Dotaniya, M. L., & Datta, S. C. (2014). Impact of bagasse and press mud on availability and fixation capacity of phosphorus in an Inceptisol of north India. Sugar Tech, 16(1), 109–112.Google Scholar
  43. Druakumar, J., Sharma, G. D., & Mishra, R. R. (1992). Soil microbial population numbers and enzyme activities in relation to altitude and forest degradation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24, 761–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Duxbury, J. M., Smith, M. S., & Doran, J. W. (1989a). In D. C. Coleman, J. M. Oades, & G. Vehara (Eds.), Dynamics of soil organic matter in tropical ecosystem. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  45. Duxbury, J. M., Motavalli, D. D., & Goedert, W. (1989b). Ion movement in cerrado soils. InThe effects of inorganic and organic amendments on sulphur (S) availability, tropical soils technical report, 1986–1987 (pp. 315–318). Raleigh: North Carolina State University.Google Scholar
  46. Eiland, F. (1981). The effects of application of sewage sludge on microorganisms in soil microbial biomass, microbial activity, enzymatic activity, sewage sludge, heavy metals. Tidsskrift for Planteavl (Denmark), 85(1), 39–46.Google Scholar
  47. Fermor, T. R., Smith, J. F., & Spencer, D. M. (1979). The microflora of experimental mushroom composts. Journal of Horticultural Science, 54(2), 137–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Finstein, M. S., & Morris, M. L. (1972). Microbiology of municipal solid waste composting. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 19, 113–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Freudenberg, K. (1968). The constituent and biosynthesis of lignin. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gaillard, V., Chenu, C., Recous, S., & Richard, G. (1999). Carbon, nitrogen and microbial gradients induced by plant residues decomposing in soil. European Journal of Soil Science, 50(4), 567–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Garcia, J., Hernandez, J., & Costa, F. (1991). Characterization of humic fractions from a municipal solid waste during composting, Suelo Y. Planta, 1(2), 43–48.Google Scholar
  52. Gaur, A. C. (1982). A manual of rural composting. FAO/UNDP regional projects.Google Scholar
  53. Gaur, A. C. (1990). Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms as biofertiliser (pp. 1–147). New Delhi: Omega Scientific Publishers.Google Scholar
  54. Gaur, V. K., & Sharma, L.C. (1991). Microorganisms antagonistic to Fusarium udum. Butler. Proceedings of the Indian National Science, Academy Part B. Biological Sciences, 57, 85–88.Google Scholar
  55. Gold, M. H., & Alik, M. (1993). Molecular biology of lignin degrading basidiomycete phaenerochaete chrysosporium. Microbiology Reviews, 57(3), 605–622.Google Scholar
  56. Goyal, S. L., Mishra, M. M., Hooda, I. S., & Singh, R. (1992). Organic matter microbial biomass relationships in field inorganic fertilization and organic amendments. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24(11), 1081–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Grant, R. F., Juma, N. G., & Mc Gill, W. B. (1993). Simulation of carbon and nitrogen transformation in soil. Microbial biomass and metabolic products. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 25(10), 1331–1338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gupta, M. C. (1986). Population dynamics of Fusarium species in soil amended with carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. Indian Phytopathology, 39, 253–258.Google Scholar
  59. Gupta, S. R., & Singh, J. S. (1981). The effect of plant species weather variables and chemical composition of plant material on decomposition in a tropical grassland. Plant and Soil, 59, 99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Halstead, R. L., & Sowden, F. J. (1986). Effect of long term addition of organic matter on crop yields and soil properties in clay and sandy soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 48, 341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Handayanto, E., Giller, K. E., & Cadisch, G. (1997). Regulating N release from legume free prunings by mixing residues of different quality. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 7, 161–169.Google Scholar
  62. Hegarty, B. M., & Curran, P. M. T. (1985). The biodeterioration of beech by marine and non-marine fungi in response to temperature, pH, light and dark. International Biodeterioration, 21(1), 11–17.Google Scholar
  63. Hoitink, H. A., & Fahy, P. C. (1986). Basis for the control of soilborne plant pathogens with composts. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 24(1), 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Inbar, Y., Hadar, Y., & Chen, Y. (1993). Recycling of cattle manure: The composting process and characterization of maturity. Journal of Environmental Quality, 22, 857–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Insam, H., Parkinson, D., & Domsch, K. H. (1989). Influence of macroclimate on soil microbial biomass. Soil Science and Biochemistry, 21, 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Iqbal, M. J., Parveen, Z., Jamil, A., Parveen, Z., & Jamil, A. (1998). Comparative study of home. Physico-chemical characteristics and phosphate activity of corn and tobacco soils. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 14(2), 127–130.Google Scholar
  67. Janzen, R. A., Cook, F. D., & McGill, W. B. (1995). Compost extract added to microcosms may simulate community level controls on soil microorganisms involved in element cycling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 27, 181–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jenkinson, D. S. (1988). Determination of microbial carbon and nitrogen in soil pp. In J. B. Wilson (Ed.), Advances in nitrogen cycling (pp. 368–386). Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  69. Jenkinson, D. S. (1990). The turn over of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil. Philosophical Transactions. Royal Society of London, 329, 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jimanez, E., & Garcia, P. (1992). Determination of the maturity indices for city refuse compost. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 38, 331–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kadalli, G. G. (1999). Coirdust based enriched compost and characterization of the humic fractions. Ph.D. (Agri.) thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  72. Kandeler, E., Eder, G., & Sobolik, M. (1994). Microbial biomass, N mineralization and the activities of various enzymes in relation to nitrate leaching and root distribution in a slurry amended grassland. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 18(1), 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kane, B. E., & Mullins, J. T. (1973). Thermophilic fungi in a municipal waste compost system. Mycologia, 65(5), 1087–1100.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Kapoor, K. K., Yadav, K. S., Singh, D. P., Mishra, M. M., & Tauro, P. (1983). Enrichment of compost by Azotobacter and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. Agricultural Wastes, 5, 125–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. King, C. J., Hope, C., & Heaton, E. D. (1934). Some microbial activities affected in manurial control of cotton root rot. Journal of Agricultural Research, 41, 1093–1107.Google Scholar
  76. Kirchmann, H. (1985). Losses, plant uptake and utilisation of manure nitrogen during a production cycle. Acta Agric. Scand. Suppl., 24, 1–77.Google Scholar
  77. Kirchner, M. J., Woolum, A. G., II, & King, L. D. (1993). Soil microbial population and activities in reduced chemical input Agroecosystems. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 57(5), 1289–1295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kirk, T. K., & Farrell, R. L. (1987). Enzymatic” combustion”: The microbial degradation of lignin. Annual Reviews in Microbiology, 41(1), 465–501.Google Scholar
  79. Kiss, S., Dragan-Bularda, M., & Radulescu, D. (1975). Biological significance of enzymes accumulated in soil. Advances in Agronomy, 27, 25–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Krishnamohan, G., & Kandaswamy, T. K. (1986). Effect of organic amendments and seed drying fungicides on Rhizoctonia solani on cotton. In Management of soil borne diseases of crop plants. A seminar in Department of Plant Pathology, p. 23. CPPS. TNAU, Coimbatore – 45.Google Scholar
  81. Kukreja, M. M., Mishra, S. S., Dhankar, K. B., Kapur, K., & Gupta, A. D. (1991). Effect of long term manurial application on microbial biomass. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 39, 685–687.Google Scholar
  82. Lacey, J. (1973). Actinomycetes in soils, composts and fodders. In G. Skyes & F. A. Skinner (Eds.), Actinomycetes characteristics and practical importance. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  83. Lim, S. L., Lee, L. H., & Wu, T. Y. (2016). Sustainability of using composting and vermicomposting technologies for organic solid waste biotransformation: Recent overview, greenhouse gases emissions and economic analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 111, 262–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Linkins, A. E., Sinsabaugh, R. L., McDlaugherty, C. A., & Melills, J. M. (1990). Cellulase activity on decomposing leaf litter in microcosms. Plant and Soil, 123, 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lockhead, A. G. (1957). Qualitative studies of soil microorganisms. XV. Capacity of the predominant bacterial flora for the synthesis of various growth factors. Soil Science, 84, 95–408.Google Scholar
  86. Lützow, M. V., Kögel-Knabner, I., Ekschmitt, K., Matzner, E., Guggenberger, G., Marschner, B., & Flessa, H. (2006). Stabilization of organic matter in temperate soils: Mechanisms and their relevance under different soil conditions–a review. European Journal of Soil Science, 57(4), 426–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mahmood, M. (1964). Factors governing the production of antibiotic bulbiformin and its use in the control of pigeon pea wilt. Science and Culture, 30, 352.Google Scholar
  88. Maiti, P. S., Sah, K. D., Gupta, S. K., & Banerjee, S. K. (1992). Evaluation of sewage sludge as a source of manures. Journal Indian Society of Soil Science, 40, 168–172.Google Scholar
  89. Mala, S. R., Revathi, G., & Solayappan, A. R. (1998). Waste to wealth-through sugar industry. Cooperative Sugar, 29, 623–624.Google Scholar
  90. Manna, M. C., & Ganguly, T. K. (2000). Rockphosphate and pyrite in compost technology: Their role in improving crop productivity and soil quality. Fertiliser News, 45(7), 41–48.Google Scholar
  91. Manna, M. C., Kundu, M., Singh, M., & Takkar, P. N. (1996). Influence of FYM on dynamics of microbial biomass and the turn over and activity of enzymes under soybean wheat system on Typic Haplusterts. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 44, 409–412.Google Scholar
  92. Mathur, S. P., et al. (1993). Determination of compost biomaturity. I. Literature review. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture, 10(2), 65–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mazzarino, M. J., Oliva, L., Nunez, G., & Buffa, E. (1991a). Nitrogen mineralization and soil fertility in the dry chaco ecosystem (Argentina). Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55, 515–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mazzarino, M. J., Oliva, L., Abril, A., & Acosta, M. (1991b). Factors affecting nitrogen dynamics in a semiarid woodland (Dry chaco, Argentina). Plant and Soil, 138, 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mehrotra, R. S., & Tiwari, P. D. (1976). Organic amendments and control of foot rot of piper beetle caused by Phytophthora parasitica var. piperina. Annals of Microbiology (InstPastem), 27(A), 415–421.Google Scholar
  96. Miller, F. C. (1993). Composting as a process based on the control of ecologically selective factors. Microbial Ecology, 515–544.Google Scholar
  97. Mishra, M. M., Kapoor, K. K., & Yadav, K. S. (1982). Effect of compost enriched with Mussoorie rock phosphate of crop yield. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 52(10), 674–678.Google Scholar
  98. Mitchell, R., Hooton, D. R., & Clark, F. E. (1941). Soil bacteriological studies on the control of Phymatotrichum root rot of cotton. Journal of Agricultural Research, 63, 535–547.Google Scholar
  99. Morel, J. L., Colin, F., Germon, J. C., Godin, P., & Juste, C. (1985). In J. K. Gasser (Ed.), Methods for the evaluation of the maturity of municipal refuse in composting of agricultural and other wastes (p. 56). London: Elsevier Applied Science.Google Scholar
  100. Muscolo, A., Boralo, F., Gionfriddo, F., & Nardi, S. (1999). Earthworm humic matter produces auxin like effects on Daucus carota cell growth and nitrate metabolism. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31, 1303–1311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Narahari, D. (1999). Fertilizer value of poultry excreta. Agro India (Vol. 4, pp. 4–5).Google Scholar
  102. Narwal, R. P., Antil, R. S., Pal, D., & Gupta, A. P. (1993). Improving nitrogen status in pressmud amended soils. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 41(3), 577–579.Google Scholar
  103. Nannipieri, P., Menccini, L., & Ciardi, C. (1983). Microbial biomass and enzyme activities production and persistence. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 15(6), 679–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Niese, G. (1959). Mikrobiologische untersuchungen zur frage der selbsterhitzung organischer stoffe. Archives of Microbiology, 34(3), 285–318.Google Scholar
  105. Nishio, M. (1985). Some ecological features of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in grassland soils. In Proceedings of the XV International Grassland Congress, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 483–485.Google Scholar
  106. Oberson, A., Fardeau, J. C., Bosson, J. M., & Stichor, H. (1993). Soil phosphorus dynamics in cropping systems managed according to conventional and biological agricultural methods. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 16(2), 111–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Padmodaya, B. (1994). Biological control of seedling disease and wilt in tomato (F. oxysporum f sp. lycopersici). Ph.D. Thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  108. Pancholy, S. K., & Rice, E. L. (1973). Soil enzymes in relation to old-field succession. Amylase, cellulase, invertase, dehydrogenase and urease. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 24, 47–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Parten, W. J., Schimel, D. S., Cole, C. V., & Ojima, D. S. (1987). Analysis of factors controlling SOM levels in great plains grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51, 1173–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Patel, S.T. (1991). Studies on some aspects of wilt of chickpea. Ph.D. thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad.Google Scholar
  111. Patra, D. D., Bhandari, S. C., & Misra, A. (1992). Effect of plant residue on the size of microbial biomass and nitrogen mineralization in soil. Incorporation of cowpea and wheat straw. Soil Science & Plant Nutrition, 38(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Paul, F. A. (1984). Dynamics of organic matter in soils. Plant and Soil, 76, 275–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Petit, N. M., Smith, A. R. J., Freedman, B. R., & Burns, R. G. (1976). Soil urease activity, stability and kinetic properties. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 8, 479–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Poincelot, R. P. (1974). Scientific examination of principles and practice of composting. Compost Science, 19(3), 24–31.Google Scholar
  115. Pometto, A. L., & Crawford, D. L. (1986). Catabolic fate of Streptomyces viridosporus T7A-produced, acid-precipitable polymeric lignin upon incubation with ligninolytic Streptomyces species and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 51(1), 171–179.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Powlson, D. S., Brookes, D. C., & Christensen, B. T. (1987). Measurement of SMB provides an early indication of changes in the total SOM due to straw incorporation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20, 377–378.Google Scholar
  117. Prabhakarachary, D., Ramachandraiah, A., Laxman Reddy, K., & Raghavachary, S. (1998). Characterization of urban solid waste. Journal of IAEM, 26, 134–135.Google Scholar
  118. Raghavendra Rao, B., & Radhakrishna, D. (2001). Quality improvement of urban solid waste compost by environment with plant growth promoting microorganisms In R. P. Gurg, T. N. Mahadevan, G. G. Padith, M. P. Rathesh, K. P. Eappen, R. N. Nair, T. V. Ramachandra, & S. R. Sachan (Eds.), Environmental implications of electric power generation.Google Scholar
  119. Rahman, K. S. M., Banat, I. M., Thahira, J., Thayumanavan, T., & Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. (2002). Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant. Bioresource Technology, 81(1), 25–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Rajavanshi, R., & Gupta, S. R. (1986). Soil respiration and carbon balance in a tropical Dalbergia sissoo forest ecosystem. Flora, 178, 251–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ramakrishnan, G., & Jayarajan, R. (1986). Biological control of seedling disease of cotton caused by Rhizoctonia solani. In: Management of soil borne diseases of crop plants. A seminar in Department of Plant Pathology. CPPS, TNAU, Coimbatore – 45.Google Scholar
  122. RAS/75/005, Field document. Rome: FAO, p. 102.Google Scholar
  123. Rasal, P. H., Kalbhor, H. B., & Patil, P. L. (1988). Effect of cellulolytic and phosphate solubilizing fungi on chickpea growth. Journal of Indian Social Science, 36, 71–74.Google Scholar
  124. Reddy, V. C., Shyamala, K., & Anand, T. N. (2000). Effect of urban garbage compost on the performance of sequential cropping of vegetables. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 34(4), 294–296.Google Scholar
  125. Rivkina, E. M., Friedmann, E. I., McKay, C. P., & Gilichinsky, D. A. (2000). Metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(8), 3230–3233.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Robertson, F. A., Myers, R. J. K., & Saffigna, P. G. (1994). Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in a long term cropping system and permanent pasture system. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 45(1), 211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Rzesniowiecka-Sulimierska, G., Ciesla, W., & Koper, J. (1984). Studies on soil organic phosphorus. Part 2. Organic phosphorus and its fractions in some arable and forest soils. Roczniki-Gleboznawcze (Polant). Soil Science Annual, 35(1), 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sabine, P., Koschinsky, S., Schwieger, F., & Tebbe, C. C. (2000). Succession of microbial communities during that composting as detected by PCR single strand confirmation polymorphism based genetic profiles of small subunit rRNA genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 930–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sajjad, M. H., Lodhi, A., & Azam, F. (2002). Changes in enzyme activity during the decomposition of plant residues in soil. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(9), 952–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sanchez, P. A., Palm, C. A., Szott, L. T., Cuevan, E., & Lal, R. (1989). Organic input management in tropical agro-ecosystems. In D. C. Coleman, J. M. Oades, & G. Vehara (Eds.), Dynamics of soil organic matter in tropical ecosystems. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  131. Sarangi, B. K., Mudliar, S. N., Bhatt, P., Kalve, S., Chakrabarti, T., & Pandey, R. A. (2008). Compost from Sugar mill press mud and distillery spent wash for sustainable agriculture. Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant, 2(1), 35–49.Google Scholar
  132. Satchell, J. E., & Martin, K. (1984). Phosphatase activity in earthworm faeces. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 16(2), 191–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Scheid, T. M. (1989). The humus quality of different composts. Mittelungen dor Destchen Bodenkundlichen Gesellscaft, 59(1), 465–470.Google Scholar
  134. Shepherd, M. A., & Withers, P. J. (1999). Applications of poultry litter and triple superphosphate fertilizer to a sandy soil: Effects on soil phosphorus status and profile distribution. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 54(3), 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Shivakumar. (1999). Effect of farm yard manure, urban compost and NPK fertilizers on growth and yield of finger millet. (Eleusine coracana (L) Gaertn). M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agricultural Science, Bangalore.Google Scholar
  136. Shivanandappa, N., Karegowda, C., & Nanjegowda, D. (1989). Management of damping – Off disease of tobacco by organic soil amendments in nursery. Journal of Soil Biology and Ecology, 9, 14–17.Google Scholar
  137. Sikora, L. J., & Enkiri, N. K. (1999). Growth of tall fescue in compost/ fertilizer blends. Soil Science, 164(1), 62–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Singaram, P., & Kamalakumari, K. (1995). Long term effect of FYM and fertilizers on enzyme dynamics of soil. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 43, 378–381.Google Scholar
  139. Singh, R. S. (1983). Organic amendments for root disease control through management of soil microbiota and the host. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 13, 1–16.Google Scholar
  140. Singh, C. P., & Amberger, A. (1990). Humic substances in straw compost with rock phosphate. Biological Waste, 31(3), 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Singh, N., & Singh, R. S. (1980). Inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. udum by soil bacteria. Indian Phytopathology, 33, 356–357.Google Scholar
  142. Singh, N., & Singh, R. S. (1982). Effect of oil cake amended soil atmosphere on pigeon pea wilt pathogen. Indian Phytopathology, 35, 300–305.Google Scholar
  143. Singh, J. S., Raghubanshi, A. S., Singh, R. S., & Srivastava, S. C. (1989). Microbial biomass acts as a source of plant nutrients in dry tropical forest and savanna. Nature, 1338, 499–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Singh, S., Mishra, M. M., Goyal, S., & Kapoor, K. K. (1992). Preparation on nitrogen and phosphorous enriched compost and its effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 62, 810–814.Google Scholar
  145. Singh, A., Malik, V., & Gupta, S. R. (1995). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on decomposting rice straw. In V. Goel, P. S. Pathak, & B. Gopal (Eds.), National symposium on agriculture and environment issues in sustainable agriculture and rural development (abstract) (p. 79). New Delhi: National Institute of Ecology.Google Scholar
  146. Singh, K. P., Kumar, V., & Hood, J. S. (2000). Effect of inoculation with Eisenia fetida and N fixing or P-solubilising microorganisms on decomposition of cattle dung and crop residues. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 18, 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Sivaprakasam, K. I. (1991). Soil amendment for crop disease management, pp. 382–404. In P. Vidyasekharan (Ed.), Basic research for crop disease management (p. 469). New Delhi: Day Publishing House.Google Scholar
  148. Skujins, J. (1976). Extra cellular enzymes in soil. CRC Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 4, 383–421.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. Skujins, J. (1978). History of abiotic soil enzyme research. In R. G. Burna (Ed.), Soil enzymes (pp. 1–49). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  150. Snehalatha, V., Boby, V. U., & Balakrishna, A. N. (2003). Changes in microbial biomass, C, N and P in an alfisol incubated with organic amendments. Geobios, 30, 229–232.Google Scholar
  151. Sparling, G. P. (1991). Organic matter carbon and microbial biomass carbon as indicators of sustainable land use. In C. R. Elliot, M. Latham, & J. Dumanski (Eds.), Evaluation for sustainable land management in the developing world (Vol. 2: Technical papers IBSRAM Proc. No. 12). Bangkok: IBSRAM.Google Scholar
  152. Spier, J. W., & Ross, D. J. (1978). Soil phosphatase and sulphatase. In R. G. Burno (Ed.), Soil enzymes (pp. 197–250). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  153. Sreenivasa, M. N., Krishna Raj, P. U., Gangadhara, G. A., & Manjunathaiah, G. M. (1993). Response of chilly (Capsicum annum L.) to inoculation of an efficient vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Scientia Hort., 53, 45–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Srivastava, S. C., & Lal, J. P. (1994). Effects of crop growth and soil treatments on microbial C, N and P in dry topical arable land. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 17(2), 108–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Srivastava, S. C., & Singh, J. S. (1988). Carbon and phosphorus in the soil biomass of some tropical soils of India. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20(5), 743–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Stindt, A. (1990). Untersuschungen Zur wirking and Zu den wirtungsme – chnismen Von. Compost extracten Botrytis cinerea. per Ex. Nocca and Balb an Erdbeeren, kopfsalat and Buschbohren, Disseriation, University of Bonn, p. 169.Google Scholar
  157. Strom, P. F. (1985). Identification of thermophilic bacteria in solid-waste composting. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 50(4), 906–913.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  158. Subler, S., Edwards, C., & Metzger, J. (1998). Comparing vermicomposts and composts. Biocycle, 38, 63–66.Google Scholar
  159. Sukamoto, K., & Oba, Y. (1991). Relationship between the amount of organic material applied and soil biomass content. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 37(3), 387–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Tabatabai, M. A. (1982). Soil enzymes. In A. L. Dage, R. H. Miller, & D. R. Keeney (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis, Part 2 (2nd ed., pp. 903–947). Madison: American Society of. Agronomy.Google Scholar
  161. Toor, A. S., Bishnoi, S. R., & Kumar, R. (2001). Available N release pattern from farmyard manure, cage system and deep litter system of poultry manure with time. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 49(2), 358–360.Google Scholar
  162. Upadhyay, R. S., & Rai, B. (1988). Biological control of Fusarium udum causing wilt disease of pigeon pea. In: abstracts of papers, 5th international congress of plant pathology Kyoto, Japan, 20–27 August 1988, p. 189.Google Scholar
  163. Verdonck, O. (1988). Composts from organic waste materials as substitutes for the usual horticultural substrates. Biological Wastes, 26(4), 325–330.Google Scholar
  164. Vinodkumar, & Waget, K. S. (1984). Urease activity and kinetics of urea transformations in soils. Soil Science, 137(4), 263–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Voland, R. P., & Epstein, A. H. (1994). Development of suppressiveness to disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani in soils amended with composted and non composted manure. Plant Disease, 78, 461–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Waksman, S. A., & Cordon, T. C. (1939). Thermophilic decomposition of plant residues in composts by pure and mixed cultures of microorganisms. Soil Science, 47(3), 217–226.Google Scholar
  167. Waksman, S. A., Cordon, T. C., & Hulpoi, N. (1939). Influence of temperature upon the microbiological population and decomposition processes in composts of stable manure. Soil Science, 47(2), 83–114.Google Scholar
  168. Witter, E., & Lopez-Real, J. (1988). Nitrogen losses during the composting of sewage sludge, and the effectiveness of clay soil, zeolite, and compost in adsorbing the volatilized ammonia. Biological Wastes, 23(4), 279–294.Google Scholar
  169. Yadav, K., Prasad, C. R., & Mandal, K. (1992). Effect of enriched compost and rhizobium culture on yield of green gram. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 40, 71–75.Google Scholar
  170. Yuen, G. Y., & Raabe, R. D. (1984). Effects of small scale aerobic composting on survival of some fungal pathogens. Pl. Disease., 68: 134-136.Google Scholar
  171. Zaman, M., Carneron, K. C., Di, H. J., & Noonan, M. J. (1998). Nitrogen mineralization rates from soil amended with dairy pond waste. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 36(2), 217–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Zentmeyer, G. A., & Thompson, C. R. (1967). The effect of saponins from alfalfa on Phytophthora cinnamomi relation to control of root – Rot of avocado. Phytopathology, 57, 1278–1279.Google Scholar
  173. Zucconi, F., & Bertoldi, M. (1987). Compost specification production and characterization of composts from municipal solid wastes. In M. Bertold, M. P. Ferranti, P. L. Hermite, & F. Zucconi (Eds.), Compost production quality and use. London: Elsevier Publications.Google Scholar
  174. Zucconi, F., Forte, M., Monaco, A., & De Bertoldi, M. (1981). Biological evaluation of compost maturity. Biocycle, 42, 127–129.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. N. Lakshmipathi
    • 1
  • B. Subramanyam
    • 1
  • B. D. Narotham Prasad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Sericulture ChintamaniUniversity of Agricultural ScienceBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations