Advertisement

Bacillus as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): A Promising Green Agriculture Technology

  • Brijendra Kumar Kashyap
  • Manoj Kumar Solanki
  • Anand Kumar Pandey
  • Sarit Prabha
  • Pramod Kumar
  • Baby Kumari
Chapter

Abstract

Bacillus is a cosmopolitan bacteria present in all kinds of environments including rhizospheric soil. Root-associated Bacillus spp. usually promote plant growth by various means, e.g., production of phytohormone precursor, i.e., indole acetic acid (IAA-auxin), phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production or serve as biocontrol and are thus termed plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). This genus may also be used along with other biocompatible bacteria including nitrogen-fixing species like Azospirillum and Azotobacter and hence may be called as consortia of bacteria or which can be used as co-inoculant to increase/improve the fertility of soil. This chapter focused on the application of Bacillus on different economically important crops.

Keywords

Bacillus PGPR ACC deaminase Ethylene IAA Auxin Siderophore Stress Bio-inoculant 

References

  1. Ahmad, Z., Wu, J., Chen, L., & Dong, W. (2017). Isolated Bacillus subtilis strain 330-2 and its antagonistic genes identified by the removing PCR. Scientific Reports, 1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-01940-9.
  2. Ait Kaki, A., Kacem Chaouche, N., Dehimat, L., et al. (2013). Biocontrol and plant growth promotion characterization of Bacillus species isolated from Calendula officinalis rhizosphere. Indian Journal of Microbiology, 53, 447–452.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12088-013-0395-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Ansari, R. A., & Mahmood, I. (2017). Optimization of organic and bio-organic fertilizers on soil properties and growth of pigeon pea. Scientia Horticulturae, 226, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhuyan, S. K., Bandyopadhyay, P., Kumar, P., et al. (2015). Interaction of Piriformospora indica with Azotobacter chroococcum. Scientific Reports, 5, 13911.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep13911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blom, J., Rueckert, C., Niu, B., et al. (2012). The complete genome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum CAU B946 contains a gene cluster for nonribosomal synthesis of Iturin a. Journal of Bacteriology, 194, 1845–1846.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.06762-11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Calvo, P., Ormeño-Orrillo, E., Martínez-Romero, E., & Zúñiga, D. (2010). Characterization of bacillus isolates of potato rhizosphere from Andean soils of Peru and their potential PGPR characteristics. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 41, 899–906.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822010000400008.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Epstein, E. (1972). Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and perspectives. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkdunde, 132, 158–159.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.19721320211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Freitas, M., Medeiros, F. H. V., Carvalho, S. P., et al. (2015). Augmenting iron accumulation in cassava by the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GBO3). Frontiers in Plant Science, 6, 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ghosh, S., Penterman, J. N., Little, R. D., et al. (2003). Three newly isolated plant growth-promoting bacilli facilitate the seedling growth of canola, Brassica campestris. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 41, 277–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Glick, B. R., Penrose, D. M., & Li, J. (1998). A model for the lowering of plant ethylene concentrations by plant growth-promoting bacteria. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 190, 63–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goswami, D., Dhandhukia, P., Patel, P., & Thakker, J. N. (2014). Screening of PGPR from saline desert of Kutch: Growth promotion in Arachis hypogea by Bacillus licheniformis A2. Microbiological Research, 169, 66–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2013.07.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gupta, R., Vakhlu, J., Agarwal, A., & Nilawe, D. (2014). Draft genome sequence of plant growth-promoting Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain W2 associated with Crocus sativus (saffron). Genome Announcements, 2, 2014.  https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00862-14.Copyright.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hyakumachi, M., Nishimura, M., Arakawa, T., et al. (2013). Bacillus thuringiensis suppresses bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum with systemic induction of defense-related gene expression in tomato. Microbes and Environments, 28, 128–134.Google Scholar
  14. Illmer, P., Barbato, A., & Schinner, F. (1995). Solubilization of hardly-soluble AlPO4 with P-solubilizing microorganisms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 27, 265–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(94)00205-F.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jha, C. K., & Saraf, M. (2015). Plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR): A review. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 5, 108–119.  https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.5171.2164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Khan, A., Ali, L., Javed, H., et al. (2016). Bacillus pumilus alleviates boron toxicity in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) due to enhanced antioxidant enzymatic activity. Scientia Horticulturae, 200, 178–185.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2016.01.024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kim, B. K., Chung, J. H., Kim, S. Y., et al. (2012). Genome sequence of the leaf-colonizing bacterium Bacillus sp. strain 5B6, isolated from a cherry tree. Journal of Bacteriology, 194, 3758–3759.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.00682-12.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumar, A., Kumari, B., & Mallick, M. (2016). Phosphate solubilizing microbes: An effective and alternative approach as biofertilizers. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8, 37–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumari, B., Mallick, M. A., & Hora, A. (2016). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Their potential for development of sustainable agriculture. In P. C. Trivedi (Ed.), Bio-exploitation for sustainable agriculture (pp. 1–19). Jaipur: Avinskar Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Kundan, R., & Pant, G. (2015). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Mechanism and current prospective. Journal of Biofertilizers and Biopesticides.  https://doi.org/10.4172/jbfbp.1000155.
  21. Kundan, R., Pant, G., Jadon, N., & Agrawal, P. K. (2015). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Mechanism and current prospective. Journal of Fertilizers and Pesticides, 6, 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2471-2728.1000155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kushwaha, A., Baily, S. B., Maxton, A., & Ram, G. D. (2013). Isolation and characterization of Pgpr associated with cauliflower roots and its effect on plant growth. International Quarterly Journal of Life Sciences, 8, 95–99.Google Scholar
  23. Lakshmanan, V., Castaneda, R., Rudrappa, T., & Bais, H. P. (2013). Root transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to beneficial Bacillus subtilis FB17 rhizobacteria revealed genes for bacterial recruitment and plant defense independent of malate efflux. Planta, 238, 657–668.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-013-1920-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee, B. D., Dutta, S., Ryu, H., et al. (2015). Induction of systemic resistance in panax ginseng against Phytophthora cactorum by native Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HK34. Journal of Ginseng Research, 39, 213–220.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2014.12.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mayak, S., Tirosh, T., & Glick, B. R. (2004). Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 42, 565–572.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2004.05.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mena-violante, H. G. (2007). Alteration of tomato fruit quality by root inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Bacillus subtilis BEB-13bs. Scientia Horticulturae, 113, 103–106.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2007.01.031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Myresiotis, C. K., Vryzas, Z., & Papadopoulou-mourkidou, E. (2014). Enhanced root uptake of acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) by tomato plants inoculated with selected Bacillus plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Applied Soil Ecology, 77, 26–33.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2014.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Niazi, A., Manzoor, S., Asari, S., et al. (2014). Genome analysis of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Subsp. plantarum UCMB5113: A rhizobacterium that improves plant growth and stress management. PLoS One, 9, 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nie, L., Shah, S., Rashid, A., et al. (2002). Phytoremediation of arsenate contaminated soil by transgenic canola and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Enterobacter cloacae CAL2. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 40, 355–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Park, K., Park, J. W., Lee, S. W., & Balaraju, K. (2013). Disease suppression and growth promotion in cucumbers induced by integrating PGPR agent Bacillus subtilis strain B4 and chemical elicitor ASM. Crop Protection, 54, 199–205.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.08.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Park, Y.-G., Mun, B.-G., Kang, S.-M., et al. (2017). Bacillus aryabhattai SRB02 tolerates oxidative and nitrosative stress and promotes the growth of soybean by modulating the production of phytohormones. PLoS One, 12, e0173203.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173203.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Patil, H., & Solanki, M. K. (2016a). Molecular prospecting: Advancement in diagnosis and control of rhizoctonia solani diseases in plants. In P. Kumar, V. K. Gupta, A. Kumar, & M. K. Tiwari (Eds.), Current trends in plant disease diagnostics and management practices (Fungal biology) (pp. 165–185). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Patil, H. J., & Solanki, M. K. (2016b). Microbial inoculant: Modern era of fertilizers and pesticides. InMicrobial inoculants in sustainable agricultural productivity (pp. 319–343). New Delhi: Springer India.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pindi, P. K., Sultana, T., & Vootla, P. K. (2013). Plant growth regulation of Bt-cotton through Bacillus species. 3 Biotech, 4, 305–315.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-013-0154-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Podile, A., & Kishore, G. (2007). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. In S. S. Gnanamanickam (Ed.), Plant-associated bacteria (pp. 195–230). Dordrecht: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1094/Phyto-71-642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Probanza, A., Lucas, J. A., Acero, N., & Gutierrez Mañero, F. J. (1996). The influence of native rhizobacteria on european alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) growth. Plant and Soil, 182, 59–66.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00010995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Probanza, A., Lucas Garcıa, J. A., Ruiz Palomino, M., et al. (2002). Pinus pinea L. seedling growth and bacterial rhizosphere structure after inoculation with PGPR Bacillus (B. licheniformis CECT 5106 and B. pumilus CECT 5105). Applied Soil Ecology, 20, 75–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(02)00007-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ram, G. (2015). Comparative analysis of 1- deaminase in selected plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology, 9, 1587–1596.Google Scholar
  39. Ram, G., Ramteke, P. W., & Adhikari, G. D. (2013). Effect of PGPR isolates on growth promotion of tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum L.). International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biological Sciences, 141–149.Google Scholar
  40. Saxena, J., Rana, G., & Pandey, M. (2013). Impact of addition of biochar along with Bacillus sp. on growth and yield of french beans. Scientia Horticulturae, 162, 351–356.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shao, J., Li, S., Zhang, N., et al. (2015). Analysis and cloning of the synthetic pathway of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid in the plant-beneficial Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. Microbial Cell Factories, 14, 130.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12934-015-0323-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Singh, R. K., Kumar, D. P., Solanki, M. K., et al. (2013). Optimization of media components for chitinase production by chickpea rhizosphere associated Lysinibacillus fusiformis B-CM18. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 53, 451–460.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201100590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Singh, R. K., Kumar, D. P., Singh, P., et al. (2014). Multifarious plant growth promoting characteristics of chickpea rhizosphere associated Bacilli help to suppress soil-borne pathogens. Plant Growth Regulation, 73, 91–101.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-013-9870-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Solanki, M. K., Kumar, S., Pandey, A. K., et al. (2012a). Diversity and antagonistic potential of Bacillus spp. associated to the rhizosphere of tomato for the management of Rhizoctonia solani. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22, 203–217.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2011.649713.
  45. Solanki, M. K., Robert, A. S., Singh, R. K., et al. (2012b). Characterization of mycolytic enzymes of Bacillus strains and their bio-protection role against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato. Current Microbiology, 65, 330–336.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-012-0160-1.
  46. Solanki, M. K., Singh, R. K., Srivastava, S., et al. (2015). Characterization of antagonistic-potential of two Bacillus strains and their biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 55, 82–90.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.201300528.
  47. Solanki, M. K., Wang, Z., Wang, F.-Y., et al. (2017). Intercropping in sugarcane cultivation influenced the soil properties and enhanced the diversity of vital diazotrophic Bacteria. Sugar Tech, 19, 136–147.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-016-0445-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tahir, H. A. S., Gu, Q., Wu, H., et al. (2017). Bacillus volatiles adversely affect the physiology and ultra-structure of Ralstonia solanacearum and induce systemic resistance in tobacco against bacterial wilt. Scientific Reports, 7, 40481.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep40481.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Upadhyay, S. K., & Singh, E. D. P. (2009). Genetic diversity of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from rhizospheric soil of wheat under saline condition. Current Microbiology.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-009-9464-1.
  50. Verma, P., Vasudevan, V., Kashyap, B. K., et al. (2018). Direct lysis glass milk method of genomic dna extraction reveals greater archaeal diversity in anaerobic biodigester slurry as assessed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, 6, 315–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang, B., Shen, Z., Zhange, F., et al. (2016a). Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain W19 can promote growth and yield and suppress fusarium wilt in banana under greenhouse and field conditions. Pedosphere, 26, 733–744.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(15)60083-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang, C., Hu, X., Liu, K., et al. (2016b). Draft genome sequence of Bacillus methylotrophicus FKM10, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from apple rhizosphere. American Society of Microbiology, 4, 2015–2016.  https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01739-15. Copyright.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Xie, X., Zhang, H., & Paré, P. W. (2009). Sustained growth promotion in Arabidopsis with long-term exposure to the beneficial soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis (GB03). Plant Signaling and Behavior, 4, 948–953.  https://doi.org/10.4161/psb.4.10.9709.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Xu, L., Xu, W., Jiang, Y., et al. (2015). Effects of interactions of auxin-producing bacteria and bacterial-feeding nematodes on regulation of peanut growths. PLoS One, 10, 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yan-de, J., Zhen-li, H. E., & Xiao-e, Y. (2007). Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils*. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 8, 192–207.  https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2007.B0192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yi, Y., de Jong, A., Frenzel, E., & Kuipers, O. P. (2017). Comparative transcriptomics of bacillus mycoides strains in response to potato-root exudates reveals different genetic adaptation of endophytic and soil isolates. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, 1487.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01487.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. Yuan, J., Zhang, N., Huang, Q., et al. (2015). Organic acids from root exudates of banana help root colonization of PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6. Scientific Reports, 5, 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep13438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang, H., Sun, Y., Xie, X., et al. (2009). A soil bacterium regulates plant acquisition of iron via deficiency-inducible mechanisms. The Plant Journal, 58, 568–577.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.03803.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhao, L., Xu, Y., Lai, X. H., Shan, C., Deng, Z., & Ji, Y. (2015). Screening and characterization of endophytic Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant Lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 46(4), 977–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brijendra Kumar Kashyap
    • 1
  • Manoj Kumar Solanki
    • 2
  • Anand Kumar Pandey
    • 1
  • Sarit Prabha
    • 1
  • Pramod Kumar
    • 3
  • Baby Kumari
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyInstitute of Engineering and Technology, Bundelkhand UniversityJhansiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Food Quality & Safety, Institute for Post-harvest and Food SciencesThe Volcani Center, Agricultural Research OrganizationRishon LeZionIsrael
  3. 3.National Centre for Disease ControlDelhiIndia
  4. 4.University Department of BiotechnologyVinoba Bhave UniversityHazaribagIndia

Personalised recommendations