Distributed Cooperative Control of Wind Farms with On-site Battery Energy Storage Systems

  • Dinh Hoa NguyenEmail author
  • Javad Khazaei
  • Susan W. Stewart
  • Jennifer Annoni
Part of the Power Systems book series (POWSYS)


This chapter studies the output power regulation in wind farms consisting of doubly-fed induction generator wind turbines, one of the most popular generator configurations in modern multi-MW wind industry, equipped with on-site battery energy storage systems. Traditionally, wind farms were operated as standalone units or were equipped with a central, large-scale, energy storage system. In fact, most of the existing control designs for hybrid wind-storage applications are centralized, where the central unit collects the measured data from all wind turbines and storage systems (if they exist) and compares with the load demand to generate the reference power for each wind turbine controller. Those centralized setups or control structures do not fully exploit the flexibility and locality of the on-site energy storage systems in a wind farm. Moreover, the storage functionality is lost if the central storage system is broken down, while in a distributed architecture, a failure only affects individual on-site storage systems and the others will still operate. Therefore, on-site storage systems and distributed control designs need to be developed for wind farms to provide regulation services for the grid. An approach to tackle that challenge will be presented in this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dinh Hoa Nguyen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javad Khazaei
    • 2
  • Susan W. Stewart
    • 3
  • Jennifer Annoni
    • 4
  1. 1.WPI International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI–I2CNER) and Institute of Mathematics for IndustryKyushu UniversityNishi-kuJapan
  2. 2.School of ScienceEngineering & Technology at Penn State HarrisburgHarrisburgUSA
  3. 3.Department of Aerospace EngineeringPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  4. 4.National Renewable Energy LaboratoryGoldenUSA

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