Attention of Viewers While Viewing Paintings Changes with the Different CCTs of Exhibition Light: A Quantitative Approach with Eye-Tracking Method

  • Amrita BhattacharjeeEmail author
  • Swati Pal
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 135)


Light influences the appearance of paintings in any exhibition. Few studies have experimented with correlated colour temperature (CCT) and illuminance of light to understand the lighting preference of viewers while viewing paintings. However, effect of only CCT on viewers’ perception is still a debatable issue. Also, previous studies in this regard have taken subjective approach with category rating that may lead to inconsistent conclusion. Therefore, a study has been designed with quantitative approach using eye-tracking method (N = 10) to verify the effect of different CCTs on viewers’ attention. The experimental result shows that viewers’ attention while viewing similar paintings changes with different CCTs of exhibition light having all other light parameters constant.


Attention Light Painting 


  1. 1.
    Nancy, C.B.: Aesthetic composition and the language of light, a subject of academic inquiry. J. Inter. Des. 30(3), 8–22 (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Simon, U.: Analysing Architecture. Routledge, London (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kruithof, A.: Philips Techn. Rev. (1941)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ao-Thongthip, S., Suriyothin, P., Inkarojrit, V.: The combined effect of gender and age on preferred illuminance and colour temperature in daily living activities Lux Pacifica 441–445 (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vienot, F., Duranda M., Mahler, E.: Kruithof’s rule revisited using LED illumination. J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1433–1446, 20 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boyce, PR., Cuttle, C.: Effect of correlated colour temperature on the perception of interiors and colour discrimination. Lighting Res. Technol. 22(1), 19–36 (1990)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davis, R., Ginthner, D.: Correlated color temperature, illuminance level and the Kruithof curve. J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 27–38 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wei, M., Houser, K., Orland, B., Lang, D., Ra, N., Sliwinski, M., Bose, M.: Field study of office worker responses to fluorescent lighting of different CCT and lumen output. Environ. Psycho. 39, 62–76 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dikel, E., Burns, G., Veitch, J.A., Mancini, S., Newsham, G.R.: Preferred chromaticity of color-tunable LED lighting. Leukos 10(2), 101–115 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Han, S., Boyce, P.: Illuminance, CCT, décor and the Kruithof curve, In: CIE, San Diego (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chou, C., Luo, H., Chen, H., Luo, M.: Museum lighting environment: build up perception zone maps on led illumination. In: Lighting Quality and Energy Efficiency. Kuala Lumpur (2014)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhai, Q., Luo, M., Liu, X.: The impact of illuminance and colour temperature on viewing fine art paintings under LED lighting. Lighting Res. Technol. 47(7), 795–809 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yoshizawa, N., Fujiwara, T., Miyashita, T.: A study on the appearance of paintings in the museum under violet and blue LED. In: CIE 474–381 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tiller, D.: Qualite´ de l’e´clairage, [Online]. Available:
  15. 15.
    Fotios, S.: Lamp colour properties and apparent brightness: a review. Lighting Res. Technol. 33(3), 163–181 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fotios, S.: A revised Kruithof graph based on empirical data. LEUKOS (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown, T.C., Daniel, T.C.: Scaling of Ratings: Concepts and Methods. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Giacomo, R., Lucia, R., Isabella, D., Carlo, U.: Reorienting attention across the horizontal and vertical meridians: evidence in favor of a premotor theory of attention. Neuropsychologia 31–40 (1987)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bhattacharjee, A., Pal, S.: Attention of viewers while viewing paintings depends on different types of exhibition light: A quantitative approach with eye-tracking method. In: AHFE, Florida (2018)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mello-Thoms, C., Nodine C.F., Kundel, H.L.: What attracts the eye to the location of missed and reported breast cancers?, In: Eye Tracking Research and Applications Symposium 2002, NY (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bhattacharjee, A., Mazumdar, S.: A study of the suitability of led light sources over conventional light sources in a museum environment. Light Eng. 24(1), 36–40 (2016)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Scuello, M., Israel, A., James, G., Steven, W.: Museum lighting: optimizing the illuminant. Color Res. Appl. 29, 121–127 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Feller, R.: Control of deteriorating seffects of light upon museum objects. Museum 17, 57–98 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    I. E. S. o. N. America.: The IESNA Lighting Handbook, IES (2000)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Amaratunga, D., David, B., Marjan, S., Rita, N.: Quantitative and qualitative research in the built environment: application of “mixed” research approach. Work Study 51(1), 17–31 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sakamoto, K.: Difference in the color preference by a geographical factor. Int. J. Soc. Behav. Educ. Econ. Bus. Ind. Eng. 7(11), 2867–2871 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DesignIIT GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

Personalised recommendations