Methodologies to Achieve Highest CO2 Emission Reduction in Automotive Systems to Meet Global CAFE/CAFC Norms

  • Selvaraji MuthuEmail author
  • Pramod Kawade
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 134)


Automotive world is about to have a new revolution with a tremendous phase of technology shift toward electric vehicles. The century-long evolution of the engine has been subjected to the threat of being extinguished because of stringent norms coming up every now and then. Over the last decades, in the refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, the refrigerants have gone from natural refrigerants like NH3, H2O to multiple generations of technologies starting from CFC to HCFC and then HFC to HFO and now moving back to natural refrigerants like CO2 and H2O to reduce the impact of ODP and GWP of emission of these refrigerants to atmosphere. Need of the hour is to deliver the advanced powertrain solutions with highest CO2 Emission reduction which can extend the life of internal combustion engines before the EV to takeover completely. In this paper, various potential light weight piston design solutions using aluminum alloy, NCI, and Steel (for PCP > 20 MPa) as base materials for passenger car, LCV, and MHD Diesel (highway and off-highway) engine applications and ring pack with high wear-resistant coating and low tangential load designs are discussed with summary of CO2 reduction potential in terms of g/km. The benefits of laser-welded steel pistons for passenger car, LCV, and MHD Diesel engines are explained with % of CH reduction and CO2 reduction potential derived from frictional mean effective pressure (FMEP).


Refrigerants PCU NCI Steel piston PVD DLC FMEP CO2 CAFÉ CAFC 



Chloro Fluro Carbon (R12)


Hydro Chloro Fluro Carbon (R22)


Hydro Fluro Carbon (R134a)


Hydro Fluro Olefins (R1234yf, R1234za)


Ozone Layer Depletion Potential


Global Warming Potential


Power Cell Unit


Nodular cast Iron


Physical Vapor Deposition


Diamond Like Carbon


Peak Cylinder Pressure


Frictional Mean Effective Pressure


Corporate Average Fuel Economy/Consumption


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MAHLE Engine Components Pvt. LtdChennaiIndia

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