Concluding Chapter: Challenges and Strategic Pathways to Participation, Equity, and Access

  • Santoshi Halder
  • Vassilios Argyropoulos


The UNCRPD (2008) is a major global catalyst having far-reaching consequences, stirring the legislations and policy framework at the local and national level. In spite of the legislations and provisions at the International and National level for promoting, protecting, and ensuring the full participation of People with Disabilities in society, there remains a noteworthy gap at the implementation level as people with disabilities are still struggling hard for independent living and effective participation in all walks of life. There is need of identifying country and culture specific challenges and barriers and find out ways to address most strategically the current needs. This is not only an area of concern for the developing countries but also in many low-resource regions of even the most developed countries where still a significant proportion of population is marginalized and vulnerable. There is pertinent need for a strong collaborative partnership between the high-resource and low-resource regions of the world where services in the latter regions have still not reached or accessed for achieving the sustainable goal of human existence and better quality of life for all.


Inclusion Participation Access Equity and equality Persons with disability 


  1. Adak, B., & Halder, S. (2017). Systematic Review on Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder with Respect to Gender and Socio-economic Status. Journal of Mental Retardation, OMIC Group, 3(1). ISSN: 2471-271X.
  2. Aldridge, J. (2007). Picture This: The Use of Participatory Photographic Research Methods with People with Learning Disabilities. Disability & Society, 22, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2015). DSM: History of the Manual. Retrieved from Google Scholar.
  4. Argyropoulos, V., & Thymakis, P. (2014). Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: An Action Research Project. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 108(2), 163–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold, L. (2017). A Brief History of “Neurodiversity” as a Concept and Perhaps a Movement. Autonomy, a Critical Journal of Interdisciplinary Autism Studies, 1(5).Google Scholar
  6. Barbaro, J., & Halder, S. (2016). Early Identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Challenges and Future Global Directions. Current Development Disorder Report, February 2016, 1–8 (Springer Special Issue). Scholar
  7. Bricher, G. (2000). Disabled People, Health Professionals, and the Social Model of Disability: Can There Be a Research Relationship? Disability & Society, 15, 781–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Capo, L. C. (2001). Autism, Employment, and the Role of Occupational Therapy. Work, 16, 201–207. pmid:12441449.Google Scholar
  9. Chaiklin, S. (2003). The Zone of Proximal Development in Vygotsky’s Analysis of Learning and Instruction. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. Ageyev, & S. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s Educational Theory and Practice in Cultural Context (pp. 39–63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chavarriaga, R., et al. (2014). Multidisciplinary Design of Suitable Assistive Technologies for Motor Disabilities in Colombia. In IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC 2014) (pp. 386–391). San Jose, CA.
  11. Chen, J. L., Leader, G., Sung, C., & Leahy, M. (2015). Trends in Employment for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Research Literature. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2(2), 115–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, D., Rowland, C., Stillman, R., & Mar, H. (2009). Authentic Practices for Assessing Skills of Young Children with Sensory Impairments and Multiple Disabilities. Early Childhood Services, 3(4), 323–338.Google Scholar
  13. Chung, K. M., Woohyun, J., Ben-Itzchah, E., Zachor, D., Furniss, F., Heyes, K., et al. (2012). Cross Cultural Differences in Challenging Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An International Examination Between Israel, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 881–889. Scholar
  14. Davis, J. M. (2013). Supporting Creativity, Inclusion and Collaborative Multi-professional Learning. Improving Schools, 16(1), 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deloitte Access Economics. (2011). The Economic Benefits of Increasing Employment for People with Disability. Canberra, ACT: Author.Google Scholar
  16. Elsabbagh, M., Divan, G., Koh, Y.-J., Kim, Y. S., Kauchali, S., Marcín, C., Montiel-Nava, C., Patel, V., et al. (2012). Global Prevalence of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Autism Research, 5(3), 160–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hassouneh, D., Alcala-Moss, A., & McNeff, E. (2011, June). Practical Strategies for Promoting Full Inclusion of Individuals with Disabilities in Community-Based Participatory Intervention Research. Research in Nursing & Health. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 Sep 9, Research in Nursing & Health, 34(3), 253–265. Google Scholar
  18. Harmon, A. (2004). The Disability Movement Turns to Brains. The New York Times.Google Scholar
  19. Hedley, D., Uljarevic, M., Cameron, L., Halder, S., Richdale, A., & Dissanayake, C. (2016). Employment Programs and Interventions Targeting Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Autism, 1–13.Google Scholar
  20. Hochstenbach-Waelen, A., Seelen, H. A., et al. (2012). Embracing Change: Practical and Theoretical Considerations for Successful Implementation of Technology Assisting Upper Limb Training in Stroke. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 9(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kliewer, C., & Biklen, D. (2000). Democratizing Disability Inquiry. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 10, 186–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krieger, B., Kinebanian, A., Prodinger, B., & Heigl, F. (2012). Becoming a Member of the Workforce: Perceptions of Adults with Asperger Syndrome. Work, 43(2), 141–157.Google Scholar
  23. Lord, J., & Church, K. (1998). Beyond “Partnership Shock:” Getting to ‘Yes’, Living with ‘No’. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation, 12, 113–121.Google Scholar
  24. Mmatli, T. O. (2009). Translating Disability-Related Research into Evidence-Based Advocacy: The Role of People with Disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 31, 14–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Myers, K. (2009). College Students with Visual Disabilities: Preferences for Effective Interaction. Germany: VDM Verlag Publications.Google Scholar
  26. Myers, K. A. (2012). Creating a Culture of Inclusion: Listening to the Voices of People with Disabilities, 53.Google Scholar
  27. Myers, K., Jenkins, J., & Pousson, M. (2009). Social Norms and Disability. ACPA Dev. Creating a Culture of Inclusion: Listening to the Voices of People with Disabilities.Google Scholar
  28. Nicholas, D. B., Attridge, M., Zwaigenbaum, L., & Clarke, M. (2014). Vocational Support Approaches in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Synthesis Review of the Literature. Autism, published online before print. Scholar
  29. Plan International. (2013). Access to Education and Protection of Girls and Boys with Disabilities in Sierra Leone, Togo, Guinea and Niger. A Research Project by Plan International’s West African Regional Office, Executive Summary Paper, Plan International.Google Scholar
  30. Reform RGoW. (2014). A New System for Better Employment and Social Outcomes: Interim Report. Canberra: Department of Social Services.Google Scholar
  31. Schendel, D., et al. (2013). The International Collaboration for Autism Registry Epidemiology (ICARE): Multinational Registry-Based Investigations of Autism Factors and Trends. Journal of Autism Development Disorders, 43, 2650–2663. Scholar
  32. Shattuck, P. T., & Roux, A. M. (2014). Commentary on Employment Supports Research. Autism, published online before print. Scholar
  33. Simeonsson, R. J. (2006). Children’s Rights and ICF-CY Documentation. Paper Presented at the Meeting of WHO Collaborating Centres for the Family of International Classifications, Tunis, Tunisia.Google Scholar
  34. Singal, N., Lynch, P., & Johansson, S. T. (Eds.). (2018). Education and Disability in the Global South: New Perspectives from Africa and Asia. Bloomsbury Publishing.Google Scholar
  35. Taweechaisupapong, M. (2015). Teachers Views About Teacher Training Towards Inclusive Education. Master’s Dissertation, Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  36. Taylor, J. L., & Seltzer, M. M. (2011). Employment and Post-secondary Educational Activities for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders During the Transition to Adulthood. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 566–574. Scholar
  37. The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act. (1995). Available from Last accessed on 27 Jan 2017.
  38. The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act. (2016, December 28). Gazette of India (Extra-Ordinary). Available from Last accessed on 27 Jan 2017.
  39. UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2008). The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York: UN DESA. Retrieved from
  40. UNESCO. (1999). Education for All: The Year 2000—Assessment. Pakistan Country Report. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  41. UNESCO. (2010). Education for All Global Monitoring Report—Reaching the Marginalised. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  42. UNESCO. (2012). Situation Analysis of the Education Sector. Pakistan: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  43. UNESCO. (2014). Education for All Global Monitoring Report—Teaching and Learning: Achieving Quality for All. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  44. UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). (2015). Fixing the Broken Promise of Education for All: Findings from the Global Initiative on Out-of-School Children. Montreal: UIS.
  45. UNICEF. (2013). State of the World’s Children—Children with Disabilities. New York: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  46. UNICEF ROSA. (2003/04). Children with Disabilities. Towards Inclusive Education in South Asia. Consolidated Report. New Delhi: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  47. UNICEF ROSA. (2012). WASH for School Children. Provisional Draft. State-of-the-art in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Nepal: UNICEF ROSA.Google Scholar
  48. Various. (n.d.) (2015). Wikipedia, Neurodiversity. Retrieved April 21, 2015, from
  49. WHO. (2007). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Child and Youth Version. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
  50. World Health Organization. (2016). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision. ICD-10 Version: 2016. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Retrieved from
  51. World Health Organization & World Bank. (2011). World Report on Disability 2011. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Santoshi Halder
    • 1
  • Vassilios Argyropoulos
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EducationUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Special EducationUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece

Personalised recommendations