Inclusive Education in Japan: Current Trends and Teachers’ View
This chapter includes current trends toward development of an inclusive education system in Japan. Findings from an analysis of a case of Development of Inclusive Education System (DIES) model project in a city are described as follows. First, the project focused on developing an organizational structure and ways to establish collaboration between related personnel. Second, the DIES model project became activated by putting a reasonable accommodation (RA) coordinator into each middle school area. Third, it was revealed that the majority of teachers who participated in the project saw changes implemented by the DIES project rather positively and also some of them clearly recognized the significance of inclusive education both for students with and without disabilities especially for understanding the diversity of people in society. However, it was suggested that they were not confident of providing reasonable accommodation to students with special needs. Finally, it was concluded that efforts were insufficient to encourage teachers under the DIES model project to understand inclusive education from various aspects of education in their areas.
KeywordsInclusive education system Japan Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities Reasonable accommodation coordinators Teachers’ ideas
Special thanks go to the Education Board, teachers and RA coordinators in Yamaga city, Kumamoto prefecture. The author would like to thank Prof. Nariki Ohsugi, Kogakkan University with whom interviews with the RA coordinators were conducted. The author also would like to extend her gratitude to Dr. Adrian Yap Yei Mian, former graduate student of Waseda University and Prof. Kazuo Kuroda of the same for inviting me to join part of the research project.
- Ainscow, M., & Sandill, A. (2000). Developing Inclusive Education Systems: The Role of Organizational Cultures and Leadership. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 14(4), 401–416. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13603110802504903.
- Furuta, H., & Ohsugi, N. (2016). Developing Inclusive Education System in Japan: A Case of Yamaga City, Kumamoto. Bulletin of Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 65, 139–144. http://reposit.lib.kumamoto-u.ac.jp/handle/2298/35864.
- Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, and Technology. (2013). Outline of Report on the Promotion of Special Needs Education for Developing an Inclusive Education System Leading to the Creation of Cohesive Society. NISE (National Institute of Special Needs Education) Bulletin, 12, 22–27.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, and Technology. (2014a). Inkurusibukyoiku sisutemukochikumoderujigyou [Model Project to Develop Inclusive Education System]. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/tokubetu/main/006/h25/1339782.htm.
- Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, and Technology. (2014b). National Demographic Data for Schooling of Children. NISE (National Institute of Special Needs Education) Bulletin, 13, 24.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology. (2017). Tokubetsusien kyouikushiryou [Survey on Special Needs Education]. Retrieved from http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/tokubetu/material/1386910.htm.
- Nagano, M., & Weinberg, L. A. (2012). The Legal Framework for Inclusive Education of Students with Disabilities: A Comparative Analysis of Japan and the United States. International Journal of Special Education, 27(1), 128–143.Google Scholar
- Yamaga City Education Board. (2015). Heisei 25/26/27nendo MonbukagakusyoSitei InkurusibuKyoikuSisutemuKochikuModeruJigyo: Yamaga-shiKyoiuIinkai Seika Houkokusyo (Progress Report, Yamaga City Education Board: 2013–2015. MEXT Model Project to Develop Inclusive Education System). Yamaga City.Google Scholar