Advertisement

Nonlinearity in Relaxor-Type Ferroelectrics Ceramics

  • Shen CongEmail author
  • Ting-ting Qu
  • Cai-hong Lu
  • Ke Tong
  • Na Li
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 216)

Abstract

In order to research the nonlinear dielectric and piezoelectric relationships for a relaxor ferroelectrics (e.g., NBT: Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3–xBaTiO3, x = 0.05–0.08), structural and microstructural characterizations were identified by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and P–E hysteresis loops by the ferroelectric hysteresis measurement. The results showed that the P–E loops of NBT ceramics became asymmetric and nonlinear as the field amplitudes increased. At the region of Rayleigh field, the Rayleigh coefficients α of NBT ceramics were evidently lower than conventional ceramics. The results were affected by both frequency and temperature, as the real permittivity and Rayleigh coefficient of NBT ceramics decreased with frequency increase from 0.2 to 20 Hz, and the nonlinearity of NBT ceramics became higher with the temperature increasing.

References

  1. 1.
    P. Echlin, Handbook of sample preparation for scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis (Springer, New York, 2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.H. Haertling, Ferroelectric ceramics: history and technology. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82(4), 797–818 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Fousek, Ferroelectricity: remarks on historical aspects and present trends. Ferroelectrics 113, 3–20 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L.E. Cross, R.E. Newnham, ‘History of ferroelectrics’, high-technology ceramics—past, present, and future. Am. Ceram. Soc. Westerville Ceram. Civilization III, 289–305 (1987)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.B. Herner, The use of acceptor dopants to lower the loss tangent in barium strontium titanate, Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University (1993)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L.E. Cross, Relaxor ferroelectrics: an overview. Ferroelectrics 151, 305–320 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z.G. Ye, Relaxor ferroelectric complex perovskites: structure, properties and phase transitions. Key Eng. Mater. 155, 81–122 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Damjanovica, A morphotropic phase boundary system based on polarization rotation and polarization extension. Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 062906 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Jaffe, W.R. Cook, H. Jaffe, Piezoelectric ceramics (Academic Press, New York, 1971)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.C. Burfoot, G.W. Taylor, Polar dielectrics and their applications (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1979)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Damjanovic, Contributions to the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric single crystals and ceramics. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2663–2676 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Stewart, M.G. Cain, D.A. Hall, Ferroelectric hysteresis measurement and analysis (National Physical Laboratory, Great Britain, Centre for Materials Measurement and Technology, 1999)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Lewis, Proc. Phys. Soc. 73, 17 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    H.J. Hagemann, Solid State Phys. J. Phys. C 11, 3333 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D.A. Hall, Ferroelectrics 223, 319 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Li, W. Cao, L.E. Cross, The extrinsic nature of nonlinear behaviour observed in lead zirconate titanate ferroelectric ceramic. J. Appl. Phys. 69(10), 7219–7224 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.G. Cady, Piezoelectricity: an introduction to the theory and application of electromechanical phenomena in crystals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1946)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.S. Bhalla, T.R. Oururaja, G.H. Haertling, D.M. Smyth, R.W. Vest, R.H. Tancrell, IEEE standard definitions of primary ferroelectric terms. IEEE, New York, ANSI/IEEE Std. 180-1986, pp. 1–21 (1986)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D.A. Hall, Nonlinearity in piezoelectric ceramics. J. Mater. Sci. 36, 4575–4601 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. Damjanovic, Hysteresis in piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials, in Science of hysteresis, vol. III, ed. by G. Bertotti, I. Mayergoyz (Elsevier, Armsterdam, 2005), pp. 337–465Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shen Cong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ting-ting Qu
    • 1
  • Cai-hong Lu
    • 1
  • Ke Tong
    • 1
  • Na Li
    • 1
  1. 1.CNPC Tubular Goods Research InstituteXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations