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Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Atmospheric Particulate Matter: Sources and Effects

  • Sushil Kumar Bharti
  • Shyamal Chandra Barman
  • Narendra Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

In the recent past, a significant amount of pesticides has been used in the field of agriculture to increase the crop yield worldwide. Among pesticides, different types of pesticides have been used in agriculture; among them organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contribute a significant proportion. Application of OCPs in the agricultural field facilities increased production, but due to the lipid-soluble nature, pesticides enter the food chain and become available to human beings. Being very economical and effective against pests, earlier OCPs were effectively used worldwide to combat plague, malaria and typhus. However, after the Second World War, scientific community noticed the adverse impact of these pesticides on the human health. At the Stockholm Convention, the use of 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was completely banned for agriculture. Despite the ban on POPs, their residual levels are still being detected in various environmental matrices due to environmental persistence and long-distance transport of these chemicals. The concentration of atmospheric OCPs is determined in different steps, viz., extraction, cleaning, analysis, and quantification. Quantification studies have revealed that the highest concentration of OCPs is still detected in developing countries including India and China besides several developed countries. Severe exposure to OCPs can lead to cancers and can also affect the pulmonary and nervous system to aggravate Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. For sustainable development, the use of synthetic chemical pesticides should be reduced, and the use biopesticides should be recommended for increased production.

Keywords

Organochlorine pesticides Particulate matter Polyurethane foam Soxhlet extraction 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sushil Kumar Bharti
    • 1
  • Shyamal Chandra Barman
    • 2
  • Narendra Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceBabasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Monitoring DivisionCSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology ResearchLucknowIndia

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