Molecular Diagnostic in Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is an ideal tumor model for heterogeneity in almost every aspect. Its clinical, spatial, and morphological heterogeneity divided by the high-level molecular genetic diversity outline the complexity of this disease in the clinical and research settings. In this chapter, we summarize the main aspects of prostate cancer and its molecular diagnosis at different levels, with special attention given to the spatial heterogeneity within the prostate, and to understand its morphological heterogeneity, with respect to tumor grading and modern classifications. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is associated with a decline in prostate cancer related mortality. However, screening has also lead to over diagnosis and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors. Newly, certain national guidelines (eg, US Preventive Services Task Force) have recommended against PSA screening, which may lead to a reverse-stage migration, even though many prostate tumors are indolent at presentation, others are aggressive and are appropriate targets for treatment interventions. Molecular markers may help in discrimination of indolent and aggressive tumors, at the time of diagnosis.
KeywordsProstate cancer Molecular techniques Prognosis Diagnosis Molecular markers PSA
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