Advertisement

Bacterial Mechanisms Promoting the Tolerance to Drought Stress in Plants

  • Fatemeh MohammadipanahEmail author
  • Maryam Zamanzadeh
Chapter

Abstract

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) include bacteria that colonize the plant and improve the growth directly by providing growth factors or indirectly by protection against environmental stress. PGPB have the potential to cooperate to the alleviation of drought stress which is among the most critical stress for plants. These beneficial microorganisms convey drought tolerance through the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS), phytohormones, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, and volatile compounds, inducing accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidants, regulation of stress-responsive genes, induction of systemic tolerance, and modification of root morphology toward the adaptation to drought tolerance.

Keywords

PGPR Drought Plant–microbe interactions Exopolysaccharides ACC deaminase 

References

  1. Ahemad M, Kibret M (2014) Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: current perspective. JKSUS 26:1–20Google Scholar
  2. Ashraf M (2010) Inducing drought tolerance in plants: recent advances. Biotechnol Adv 28:169–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2009.11.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bano Q, Ilyas N, Bano A et al (2013) Effect of Azospirillum inoculation on maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress. Pak J Bot 45(S1):13–20Google Scholar
  4. Bashan Y, de Bashan LE (2005) Plant growth-promoting. In: Hillel D (ed) Encyclopedia of soils in the environment. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bisen K, Keswani C, Mishra S, Saxena A, Rakshit A, Singh HB (2015) Unrealized potential of seed biopriming for versatile agriculture. In: Rakshit A, Singh HB, Sen A (eds) Nutrient use efficiency: from basics to advances. Springer, New Delhi, pp 193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bourque FG, Bertrand A, Claessens A (2016) Alleviation of drought stress and metabolic changes in Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) colonized with Bacillus subtilis B26. Front Plant Sci 7:584.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00584 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bresson J, Varoquaux F, Th B et al (2013) The PGPR strain Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196 induces a reproductive delay and physiological changes that result in improved drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. New Phytol 200:558–569.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12383 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Collemare J, Lebrun MH (2012) Fungal secondary metabolites: ancient toxins and novel effectors in plant–microbe interactions. In: Martin F, Kamoun S (eds) Effectors in plant–microbe interactions, 1st edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  9. Cura JA, Franz DR, Filosofía JE et al (2017) Inoculation with Azospirillum sp. and Herbaspirillum sp. bacteria increases the tolerance of maize to drought stress. Microorganisms 5:41.  https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5030041 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Daffonchio D, Hirt H, Berg G (2015) Plant-microbe interactions and water management in arid and saline soils. In: Lugtenberg B (ed) Principles of plant-microbe interactions. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08575-3_27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Delshadi S, Ebrahimi M, Shirmohammadi E (2017) Influence of plant-growth-promoting bacteria on germination, growth and nutrients’ uptake of Onobrychis sativa L. under drought stress. J Plant Interact 12(1):200–208.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2017.1316527 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ebels MA (2015) The use of plant growth promoting bacteria as ‘bio-fertilizers’: crop inoculation to reduce agrochemical devastation. Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of The University of Texas at AustinGoogle Scholar
  13. Egamberdieva D, Davranov K, Wirth S et al (2017a) Impact of soil salinity on the plant-growth – promoting and biological control abilities of root associated bacteria. Saudi J Biol Sci 24:1601–1608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Egamberdieva D, Wirth SJ, Alqarawi AA et al (2017b) Phytohormones and beneficial microbes: essential components for plants to balance stress and fitness. Front Microbiol 8:2104.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02104 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Fahad S, Hussain S, Bano A et al (2014) Potential role of phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses: consequences for changing environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:4907.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3754-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N et al (2009) Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agron Sustain Dev 29:185–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farrar K, Bryant D, Naomi CS (2014) Understanding and engineering beneficial plant–microbe interactions: plant growth promotion in energy crops. Plant Biotechnol J 12:1193–1206.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12279 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Fraiture C, Molden D, Wichelns D (2010) Investing in water for food, ecosystems, and livelihoods: an overview of the comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture. Agric Water Manag 97:495–501.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2009.08.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Furlan F, Saatkamp K, Volpiano CG et al (2017) Plant growth-promoting bacteria effect in withstanding drought in wheat cultivars. Revista Scientia Agraria 18(2):104–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Glick BR (2012) Plant growth-promoting bacteria: mechanisms and applications. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Scientifica 2012, Article ID 963401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Glick BR (2014) Bacteria with ACC deaminase can promote plant growth and help to feed the world. Microbiol Res 169:30–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Glick BR (2015) Stress control and ACC deaminase. In: Lugtenberg B (ed) Principles of plant-microbe interactions. Springer, Cham.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08575-3_27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Glick BR, Cheng Z, Czarny J et al (2007) Promotion of plant growth by ACC deaminase-producing soil bacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol 119:329–339.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10658-007-9162-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gopalakrishnan S, Sathya A, Vijayabharathi R (2015) Plant growth promoting rhizobia: challenges and opportunities. 3 Biotech 5:355–377.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-014-0241-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Grover M, Ali SZ, Sandhya V et al (2011) Role of microorganisms in adaptation of agriculture crops to abiotic stresses. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:1231–1240.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-010-0572-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gururani MA, Upadhyaya CP, Baskar V et al (2013) Plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria enhance abiotic stress tolerance in Solanum tuberosum through inducing changes in the expression of ROS-scavenging enzymes and improved photosynthetic performance. J Plant Growth Regul 32:245–258.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-012-9292-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hanin M, Ch E, Ngom M et al (2016) New insights on plant salt tolerance mechanisms and their potential use for breeding. Front Plant Sci 7:1787.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01787 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Heidari M, Golpayegani A (2012) Effects of water stress and inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on antioxidant status and photosynthetic pigments in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J Saudi Soc Agric Sci 11:57–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2011.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heidari M, Mousavinik SM, Golpayegani A (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) effect on physiological parameters and mineral uptake in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) under water stress. ARPN J Agric Biol Sci 6(5):6Google Scholar
  30. Ilangumaran G, Smith DL (2017) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in amelioration of salinity stress: a systems biology perspective. Front Plant Sci 8:1768.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01768 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. International Hydrological Programme. Water Scarcity and Quality. UNESCO. https://en.unesco.org/themes/water-security/hydrology/water-scarcity-and-quality
  32. Jha Y, Subramanian RB, Patel S (2011) Combination of endophytic and rhizospheric plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Oryza sativa shows higher accumulation of osmoprotectant against saline stress. Acta Physiol Plant 33:797–802.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-010-0604-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson NC, Wilson GWT, Bowker MA et al (2010) Resource limitation is a driver of local adaptation in mycorrhizal symbioses. PNAS 107(5):2093–2098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kang BG, Kim WT, Yun HS et al (2010) Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to control stress responses of plant roots. Plant Biotechnol Rep 4:179–183.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11816-010-0136-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kang SM, Khan AL, Waqas M et al (2014a) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria reduce adverse effects of salinity and osmotic stress by regulating phytohormones and antioxidants in Cucumis sativus. J Plant Interact 9(1):673–682.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2014.894587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kang SM, Waqas M, Khan AL (2014b) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria: potential candidates for gibberellins production and crop growth promotion. In: Miransari M (ed) Use of microbes for the alleviation of soil stresses, vol 1. Springer, New York.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9466-9_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Karlidag H, Yildirim E, Turan M et al (2013) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria mitigate deleterious effects of salt stress on strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa). Hortscience 48(5):563–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kasim WA, Osman ME, Omar MN et al (2012) Control of drought stress in wheat using plant-growth-promoting bacteria. J Plant Growth Regul 32:122–130.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-012-9283-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaur G, Asthir B (2017) Molecular responses to drought stress in plants. Biol Plant 61(2):201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kaushal M, Wani SP (2015) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria: drought stress alleviators to ameliorate crop production in drylands. Ann Microbiol 66:35.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13213-015-1112-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kavamura VN, Santosa SN, JLda S et al (2013) Screening of Brazilian cacti rhizobacteria for plant growth promotion under drought. Microbiol Res 168:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Keswani C, Mishra S, Sarma BK et al (2014) Unravelling the efficient applications of secondary metabolites of various Trichoderma spp. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:533–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Khan AL, Waqas M, Hamayun M et al (2013) Co-synergism of endophyte Penicillium resedanum LK6 with salicylic acid helped Capsicum annuum in biomass recovery and osmotic stress mitigation. BMC Microbiol 13:51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kohler J, Hernandez JA, Caravaca F et al (2008) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modify alleviation biochemical mechanisms in water-stressed plants. Funct Plant Biol 35:141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ledger T, Rojas S, Timmermann T et al (2016) Volatile-mediated effects predominate in Paraburkholderia phytofirmans growth promotion and salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. Front Microbiol 7:1838.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01838 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Liddycoat SM, Greenberg BM, Wolyn DJ (2009) The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on asparagus seedlings and germinating seeds subjected to water stress under greenhouse conditions. Can J Microbiol 55:388–394.  https://doi.org/10.1139/W08-144 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Lim JH, Kim SD (2013) Induction of drought stress resistance by multi-functional PGPR Bacillus licheniformis K11 in pepper. Plant Pathol J 29(2):201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu XM, Zhang H (2015) The effects of bacterial volatile emissions on plant abiotic stress tolerance. Front Plant Sci 6:774.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00774 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu F, Xing S, Ma H et al (2013) Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:9155–9164.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-013-5193-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 63:541–556.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.62.081307.162918 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Marulanda A, Barea JM, Azcon R (2009) Stimulation of plant growth and drought tolerance by native microorganisms (AM Fungi and Bacteria) from dry environments: mechanisms related to bacterial effectiveness. J Plant Growth Regul 28:115–124.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-009-9079-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004a) Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:565–572.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2004.05.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Mayak S, Tirosh T, Glick BR (2004b) Plant growth-promoting bacteria that confer resistance to water stress in tomatoes and peppers. Plant Sci 166:525–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Meena KK, Sorty AM, Bitla UM et al (2017) Abiotic stress responses and microbe-mediated mitigation in plants: the omics strategies. Front Plant Sci 8:172.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.00172 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Moreira FS, PBd C, Rd S et al (2016) Functional abilities of cultivable plant growth promoting bacteria associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops. Genet Mol Biol 39(1):111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nadeem SM, Ahmad M, Zahir ZA et al (2014) The role of mycorrhizae and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in improving crop productivity under stressful environments. Biotechnol Adv 32:429–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nadeem SM, Imran M, Naveed M et al (2017) Synergistic use of biochar, compost and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for enhancing cucumber growth under water deficit conditions. J Sci Food Agric 97:5139–5145.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8393 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Nautiyal CS, Srivastava S, Chauhan PS et al (2013) Plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 modulates gene expression profile of leaf and rhizosphere community in rice during salt stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 66:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Naveed M, Hussain MB, Zahir ZA (2014) Drought stress amelioration in wheat through inoculation with Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN. Plant Growth Regul 73:121–131.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-013-9874-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Naylor D, Coleman-Derr D (2017) Drought stress and root-associated bacterial communities. Front Plant Sci 8:2223.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.02223 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ngumbi E, Kloepper J (2016) Bacterial-mediated drought tolerance: current and future prospects. Appl Soil Ecol 105:109–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Niu X, Song L, Xiao Y, Ge W (2018) Drought-tolerant plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria associated with foxtail millet in a semi-arid agroecosystem and their potential in alleviating drought stress. Front Microbiol 8:2580.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02580 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Olanrewaju OS, Glick BR, Babalola OO (2017) Mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting bacteria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 33:197.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-017-2364-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Orhan F (2016) Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Braz J Microbiol 47:621–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Penrose DM, Glick BR (2011) Levels of ACC and related compounds in exudate and extracts of canola seeds treated with ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting bacteria. Can J Microbiol 47:368–372.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjm-47-4-368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Penuelas J, Rico L, Ogaya R et al (2011) Summer season and long-term drought increase the richness of bacteria and fungi in the foliar phyllosphere of Quercus ilex in a mixed Mediterranean forest. Plant Biol 14:565.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1438-8677.2011.00532.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pujar AM, Handiganoor MG, Hadora R (2017) Influence of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria’s on productivity of crop plants. Adv Res 12(4):1–6., , Article no.air.37479.  https://doi.org/10.9734/AIR/2017/37479 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rapparini F, Penuelas J (2014) Mycorrhizal fungi to alleviate drought stress on plant growth. In: Miransari M (ed) Use of microbes for the alleviation of soil stresses, vol 1. Springer, New York.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9466-9_2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reed MLE, Glick BR (2005) Growth of canola (Brassica napus) in the presence of plant growth-promoting bacteria and either copper or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Can J Microbiol 51:1061–1069.  https://doi.org/10.1139/W05-094 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Reis SP, Marques DN, Lima AM (2016) Plant molecular adaptations and strategies under drought stress. In: Hossain MA et al (eds) Drought stress tolerance in plants, vol 2. Springer, Cham, pp 91–122.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32423-4_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rosegrant MW, Ringler C, Zhu T (2009) Water for agriculture: maintaining food security under growing scarcity. Annu Rev Environ Resour 34:205–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sadeghi A, Karimi E, Abaszadeh Dahaji P et al (2011) Plant growth promoting activity of an auxin and siderophore producing isolate of Streptomyces under saline soil conditions. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:1503–1509.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-011-0952-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Saharan BS, Nehra V (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: a critical review. Life Sci Med Res 2011:LSMR-21Google Scholar
  74. Sahin U, Ekinci M, Kiziloglu FM et al (2015) Ameliorative effects of plant growth promoting bacteria on water-yield relationships, growth, and nutrient uptake of lettuce plants under different irrigation levels. Hortscience 50(9):1379–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Saikia J, Sarma RK, Dhandia R et al (2018) Alleviation of drought stress in pulse crops with ACC deaminase producing rhizobacteria isolated from acidic soil of Northeast India. Sci Rep 8:3560.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-21921-w CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Saleem M, Arshad M, Hussain S et al (2007) Perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 34:635–648.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-007-0240-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Sandhya V, Ali SKZ, Grover M et al (2009) Alleviation of drought stress effects in sunflower seedlings by the exopolysaccharides producing Pseudomonas putida strain GAP-P45. Biol Fertil Soils 46:17–26.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-009-0401-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sandhya V, SkZ A, Grover M et al (2010) Effect of plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. on compatible solutes, antioxidant status and plant growth of maize under drought stress. Plant Growth Regul 62:21–30.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-010-9479-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Saravanakumar D, Kavino M, Raguchander T et al (2011) Plant growth promoting bacteria enhance water stress resistance in green gram plants. Acta Physiol Plant 33:203–209.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-010-0539-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sgroy V, Cassan F, Masciarelli O et al (2009) Isolation and characterization of endophytic plant growth-promoting (PGPB) or stress homeostasis-regulating (PSHB) bacteria associated to the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:371–381.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-009-2116-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shinozak K, Shinozaki KY (2000) Molecular responses to dehydration and low temperature: differences and cross-talk between two stress signaling pathways. Curr Opin Plant Biol 3:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shrivastava P, Kumar R (2015) Soil salinity: a serious environmental issue and plant growth promoting bacteria as one of the tools for its alleviation. Saudi J Biol Sci 22:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh HB, Sarma BK, Keswani C (eds) (2016) Agriculturally important microorganisms: commercialization and regulatory requirements in Asia. Springer, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  84. Singh HB, Sarma BK, Keswani C (eds) (2017) Advances in PGPR. CABI, OxfordshireGoogle Scholar
  85. Sziderics AH, Rasche F, Trognitz F et al (2007) Bacterial endophytes contribute to abiotic stress adaptation in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.). Can J Microbiol 53:1195–1202.  https://doi.org/10.1139/W07-082 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Tank N, Saraf M (2010) Salinity-resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ameliorates sodium chloride stress on tomato plants. J Plant Interact 5(1):51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tapias DR, Galvan AM, Pardo-Díaz S et al (2012) Effect of inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) on amelioration of saline stress in maize (Zea mays). Appl Soil Ecol 61:264–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2012.01.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tarkka M, Schrey S, Hampp R (2008) Plant associated soil micro-organisms. In: Nautiyal CS, Dion P (eds) Molecular mechanisms of plant and microbe coexistence, Soil biology 15. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, p 3.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75575-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Timmusk S, Wagner EGH (1999) The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa induces changes in Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression: a possible connection between biotic and abiotic stress responses. MPMI 12(11):951–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Timmusk S, Timmusk K, Behers L (2013) Rhizobacterial plant drought stress tolerance enhancement: towards sustainable water resource management and food security. J Food Secur 1(1):6–9.  https://doi.org/10.12691/jfs-1-1-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Timmusk S, El-Daim IAA, Copolovici L et al (2014) Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere Bacteria from harsh environments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles. PLoS One 9(5):e96086.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096086 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Upadhyay SK, Singh JS, Singh DP (2011) Exopolysaccharide-producing plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria under salinity condition. Pedosphere 21(2):214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vacheron J, Desbrosses G, Bouffaud ML et al (2013) Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and root system functioning. Front Plant Sci 4:365.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00356 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vandenberghe LPSL, Garcia LMB, Rodrigues C et al (2017) Potential applications of plant probiotic microorganisms in agriculture and forestry. AIMS Microbiol 3(3):629–648.  https://doi.org/10.3934/microbiol.2017.3.629 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Vardharajula S, Ali SZ, Grover M et al (2011) Drought-tolerant plant growth promoting Bacillus spp.: effect on growth, osmolytes, and antioxidant status of maize under drought stress. J Plant Interact 6(1):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17429145.2010.535178 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vilchez J, Niehaus K, Dowling DN et al (2018) Protection of pepper plants from drought by Microbacterium SP. 3J1 by modulation of the plants glutamine and ketoglutarate content: a comparative metabolomics approach. Front Microbiol 9:284.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00284 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Vurukonda SSKP, Vardharajula S, Shrivastava M et al (2016) Enhancement of drought stress tolerance in crops by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiol Res 184:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wang CJ, Yang W, Wang C et al (2012) Induction of drought tolerance in cucumber plants by a consortium of three plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium strains. PLoS One 7(12):e52565.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052565 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Wang X, Cai X, Xu C et al (2016) Drought-responsive mechanisms in plant leaves revealed by proteomics. Int J Mol Sci 17:1706.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101706 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang M, Li E, Ch L et al (2017) Functionality of root-associated bacteria along a salt marsh primary succession. Front Microbiol 8:2102.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02102 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Weyens N, Dvd L, Taghavi S et al (2009) Exploiting plant–microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation. Trends Biotechnol 27(10):591.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2009.07.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Whipps JM, Hand P, Pink D et al (2008) Phyllosphere microbiology with special reference to diversity and plant genotype. J Appl Microbiol 105:1744–1755.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03906.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Yang J, Kloepper JW, ChM R (2008) Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci 14(1):1.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2008.10.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Yu X (2016) Water scarcity: fact or fiction? Paper presented at the 3rd International Conference on Education, Management and Computing Technology (ICEMCT), Published by Atlantis PressGoogle Scholar
  105. Zahedi H, Abbasi S (2015) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and water stress on phytohormones and polyamines of soybean. Indian J Agric Res 49(5):427–431.  https://doi.org/10.18805/ijare.v49i5.5805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zelicourta A, Al-Yousif M, Hirt H (2013) Rhizosphere microbes as essential partners for plant stress tolerance. Mol Plant 6(2):242–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbial Biotechnology, School of Biology and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

Personalised recommendations