Advertisement

Potential Pollutants in Soil System: Impacts and Remediation

  • Manasvini
  • Khajanchi LalEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The economic upswing of the developing countries propelled the agricultural and industrial growth which has resulted in serious environmental degradation. All the ecosystems of earth are equally facing the problems caused by different types of pollutants. In our day-to-day life, we are exposed to various kinds of pollutants. We often talk about water and air pollution but soil pollution is very less discussed and reported. Soil have been carrying in itself number of contaminants mainly heavy metals, pesticides, organophosphates and radioactive residues from thousands of years acting as a sink of pollutants. These accumulated contaminants cause various types of health issues and affect other life forms. Any kind of imbalance causes visible changes not only in soil ecosystem but also in air, water and biological life. Once it degrades it is very difficult to reclaim it fully in its natural form. This chapter is an outcome of reading various works of literature regarding soil pollution, its possible causes and effects on life forms, various types of pollutants and the bioavailability of these contaminants. The chapter at the end is closed by discussing various strategies for the remediation of the contaminated soil.

Keywords

Bioremediation Contamination Heavy metals Pollutants Soil pollution Organophosphates 

References

  1. Adesodun JK, Atayese MO, Agbaje T, Osadiaye BA, Mafe O, Soretire AA (2010) Phytoremediation potentials of sunflowers (Tithonia diversifolia and Helianthus annuus) for metals in soils contaminated with zinc and lead nitrates. Water Air Soil Pollut 207:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adrian NR, Arnett CM (2007) Anaerobic biotransformation of explosives in aquifer slurries amended with ethanol and propylene glycol. Chemosphere 66:1849–1856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akagha CI, Ajiwe VIE, Okoye PAC, Alisa CO, Nkwoada AU (2017) Investigation of Aba river contamination using Eichhornia crassipes as bio-indicator. Curr J Appl Sci Technol 22(1):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali H, Khan E, Sajad MA (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals-concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91:869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aslan A, Cicek A, Yazici K, Karagoz Y, Turan M, Akkus F, Yildirim OS (2011) The assessment of lichens as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution from motor vehicles activities. Afr J Agric Res 6(7):1698–1706Google Scholar
  6. Bajsa O, Nair J, Mathew K, Ge H (2004) Pathogen die-off in vermicomposting process. In: 6th specialist conference on small water and wastewater systems, 11–13 February, Fremantle, Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker AJM, Walker PL (1990) Ecophysiology of metal uptake by tolerant plants. In: Shaw AJ (ed) Heavy metal tolerance in plants: evolutionary aspects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 155–177Google Scholar
  8. Bech J, Poschenrieder C, Llugany M, Barcelo J, Tume P, Tobias FJ, Barranzuela JL, Vasquez ER (1997) Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetation around a copper mine in Northern Peru. Sci Total Environ 203(1):83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhatti SS, Sambyal V, Nagpal AK (2016) Heavy metals bioaccumulation in Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) cultivated in areas under intensive agriculture, Punjab, India. Springerplus 5(173):173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brevik EC, eds BLC (2013) Soils and human health. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooks RR, Radford CC (1978) Nickel accumulation by European species of the genus Alyssum. Proc R Soc B 203:387–403Google Scholar
  12. Chatterjee S, Chattopadhyay P, Roy S, Sen SK (2008) Bioremediation: a tool for cleaning polluted environments. J Appl Biosci 11:594–601Google Scholar
  13. Crocker FH, Indest KJ, Frederickson HL (2006) Biodegradation of the cyclic nitramine explosives RDX, HMX and CL-20. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 73:274–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dabke SV (2013) Vermi-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Blacksm Inst J Health Pollut 3(4):4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deardorff T, Karch N, Holm S (2008) Dioxin levels in ash and soil generated in Southern California fires. Organohalogen Compd 70:2284–2288Google Scholar
  16. Ebbs SD, Lasat MM, Brady DJ, Cornish J, Gordon R, Kochian LV (1997) Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from contaminated soil. J Environ Qual 26(5):1424–1430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frey B, Keller C, Zierold K (2000) Distribution of Zn in functionally different leaf epidermal cells of the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant Cell Environ 23(7):675–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gumaelius L, Lahner B, Salt DE, Banks JA (2004) Arsenic hyperaccumulation in gametophytes of Pteris vittata. A new model system for analysis of arsenic Hyperaccumulation. Plant Physiol 136(2):3198–3208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jaffre T, Brooks RR, Lee J, Reeves RD (1976) Sebertia acuminata: a nickel accumulating plant from new Caledonia. Science 193:579–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Javied S, Mehmood T, Chaudhary MM, Tufali M, Irfan N (2009) Heavy metal pollution from phosphate rocks used for the production of fertilizer in Pakistan. Microb J 91(1):94–99Google Scholar
  21. Ji P, Sun T, Song Y, Ackland ML, Liu Y (2011) Strategies for enhancing the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated agricultural soils by Solanum nigrum L. Environ Pollut 159:762–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kelechi NL, Modupe AO, Anigbogu CC (2016) Vermiremediation of soils contaminated with mixture of petroleum products using Eisenia fetida. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 20(3):771–779Google Scholar
  23. Kim EJ, Choi SD, Chang YS (2011) Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils after forest fires in South Korea. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 18(9):1508–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Madejon P, Maranon T, Navarro-Fernandez CM, Domínguez MT, Alegre JM, Robinson B (2017) Potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis for phytostabilization and biomonitoring of trace-element contaminated soils. PLoS One 12(6):e0180240.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180240 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Malik RN, Husain SZ, Nazir I (2010) Heavy metal contamination and accumulation in soil and wild plant species from industrial area of Islamabad, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 42:291–301Google Scholar
  26. Malizia D, Giuliano A, Ortaggi G, Masotti A (2012) Common plants as alternative analytical tools to monitor heavy metals in soil. Chem Cent J 6(2):S6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mazur Z, Radziemska M, Fronczyk J, Jeznach J (2015) Heavy metal accumulation in bioindicators of pollution in urban areas of Northeastern Poland. Fresenius Environ Bull 24(1a):216–223Google Scholar
  28. Mojiri A, Aziz HA, Zahed MA, Aziz SQ, Selamat MRB (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals from urban waste leachate b southern cattail (Typha domingensis). Int J Sci Res Environ Sci 1(4):63–70Google Scholar
  29. Mohapatra PK (2008) Textbook of environmental microbiology. I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  30. Naidu R, Kookana RS, Sumner ME, Harter RD, Tiller KG (1997) Cadmium sorption and transport in variable charge soils: a review. Environ Qual 26:602–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prasad MNV, Freitas HMD (2003) Metal hyperaccumulation in plants—biodiversity prospecting for phytoremediation technology. Electron J Biotechnol 93(1):285–321Google Scholar
  32. Rais D (2005) Soil solution chemistry in a heavy metal contaminated forest model ecosystem. PhD thesis, ETH Zurich SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  33. Reeves RD, Brooks RR (1983) European species of Thlaspi L. (Cruciferae) as indicators of nickel and zinc. J Geochem Explor 18:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reinecke AJ, Nash RG (1984) Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and short-term bioaccumulation by earthworms (Oligochaeta). Soil Biol Biochem 16:45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rhind SM (2009) Anthropogenic pollutants: a threat to ecosystem sustainability? Philos Trans R Soc 364:3391–3401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rorat A, Wloka D, Grobelak A, Grosser A, Sosnecka A, Milczarek M, Jelonek P, Vandenbulcke F, Kacprzak M (2017) Vermiremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in sewage sludge composting process. J Environ Manag 187:347–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Saxena M, Chauhan A, Asokan P (1998) Fly ash vermicompost from non-friendly organic wastes. J Pollut Res 17(1):5–11Google Scholar
  38. Sim CK, Bakar AA, Mahmood NZ, Abdullah N (2012) Vermiremediation of heavy metals in landfill leachate contaminated soil via Lumbricus rubellus. In: 6th specialist conference on small water and wastewater systems, 11–13 February, Fremantle, Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  39. Singh JS, Singh SP, Gupta SR (2006) Ecology, environment and resource conservation. Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi, pp 411–412Google Scholar
  40. Singh R, Singh DP, Kumar N, Bhargava SK, Barman SC (2010) Accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in soil and plants from fly ash contaminated area. J Environ Biol 31:421–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Singh UV, Abhishek A, Bhaskar M, Tandan N, Ansari NG, Singh NP (2015) Phyto-extraction of heavy metals and biochemical changes with Brassica nigra L. grown in rayon grade paper mill effluent irrigated soil. Bioinformation 11(3):138–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Soleimani M, Jaber N (2014) Comparison of biological and thermal remediation methods in decontamination of oil polluted soils. J Bioremed Biodegr 5:e145.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6199.1000e145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Souza TS, Fontanetti CS (2011) Morphological biomarkers in the Rhinocricus padbergi midgut exposed to contaminated soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Streche C, Cocarţa DM, Istrate IA, Badea AA (2018) Decontamination of petroleum-contaminated soils using the electrochemical technique: remediation degree and energy consumption. Sci Rep 8:3272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Uneo D, Zhao FJ, Shen RF, Ma JF (2004) Cadmium and zinc accumulation by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens from soils enriched with insoluble metal compounds. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 50(3–4):511–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang T, Pan J, Liu X (2017) Characterization of heavy metal contamination in the soil and sediment of the three gorges reservoir, China. J Environ Sci Health, Part A: Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 52(3):201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Watson JG (1996) Physical/chemical treatment of organically contaminated soils and sediments. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 46(10):993–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. WHO (2013) Ten chemicals of major health concern. Retrieved from: www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/chemicals_phc/en/index.html
  49. Xia HP (2004) Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land. Chemosphere 54:345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xiaohai L, Yuntao G, Khan S, Gang D, Aikui C, Li L (2008) Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on contaminated sites and their potential accumulation capacity in Heqing, Yunnan. J Environ Sci 20:1469–1474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yang Y, Ge Y, Zeng H, Zhou X, Peng L, Zeng Q (2017) Phytoextraction of cadmium-contaminated soil and potential of regenerated tobacco biomass for recovery of cadmium. Sci Rep 7:7210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yong RN, Galvez-Cloutier R, Phadungchewit Y (1993) Selective sequential extraction analysis of heavy-metal retention in soil. Can Geotech J 30:834–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Water Technology CentreIndian Agriculture Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations