Advertisement

Introducing Migration, Gender and the Service Sector

  • Yang Shen
Chapter
Part of the New Perspectives on Chinese Politics and Society book series (NPCPS)

Abstract

A wave of suicides occurred in Foxconn factory plants across China in 2010, during which 14 workers aged 18–25 died (Lau, 2010). The Foxconn incidents drew my attention to rural migrant workers and motivated me to carry out research on migrant workers. On the theoretical level, I was interested in finding out everyday operation of gender and class. On the personal level, I intended to document experiences of the marginalised groups in Shanghai, the richest city in China.

Bibliography

  1. Batnitzky, A., McDowell, L., & Dyer, S. (2009). Flexible and strategic masculinities: The working lives and gendered identities of male migrants in London. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(8), 1275–1293.Google Scholar
  2. Boehm, D. A. (2008). “Now I am a man and a woman!” Gendered moves and migrations in a transnational Mexican community. Latin American Perspectives, 35(1), 16–30.Google Scholar
  3. Bourgois, P. (2002). In search of respect: Selling crack in El Barrio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brownell, S. (2001). Making dream bodies in Beijing: Athletes, fashion models, and urban mystique in China. In N. Chen, C. D. Clark, S. Z. Gottschang, & L. Jeffrey (Eds.), China urban: Ethnographies of contemporary culture (pp. 123–142). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cao, R. (2010). Xinshengdai nongmingong hunlian moshi chutan [Marriage model of new-generation migrant workers]. Nanfang renkou [South China Population], 25(5), 53–59.Google Scholar
  6. Chan, A. (2002). The culture of survival: Lives of migrant workers through the prism of private letters. In Popular China: Unofficial culture in a globalizing society (pp. 163–188). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  7. Chan, J., & Pun, N. (2010). Suicide as protest for the new generation of Chinese migrant workers: Foxconn, global capital, and the state. The Asia-Pacific Journal, 37(2), 1–50.Google Scholar
  8. Chang, L. T. (2008). Factory girls: From village to city in a changing China. New York: Spiegel & Grau.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, G., Cao, G., Liu, Y., Pang, L., Zhang, L., Ren, Q., … Zheng, X. (2006). Beijingshi weilai renkou fazhan qushi yuce: Liyong duozhuangtai moxing dui weilai renkou renli ziben he chengshihua shuiping de yuce fenxi [The future population of Beijing: A projection on the population, human capital and urbanisation using PDE model]. Shichang Yu Renkou Fenxi [Market and Demographic Analysis], 12(4), 29–41.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, Y. (2008). Internal migrants and labour market discrimination in Shanghai’s manufacturing sector. Doctoral dissertation, University of Glasgow. Retrieved from http://eleanor.lib.gla.ac.uk/record=b2628339
  11. Chen, Y. L. (2008). Zhongguo fanzuilv de shizheng yanjiu: jiyu 1978–2005 nian de jiliang fenxi [An empirical study on China’s crime rates: 1978–2005]. Doctoral dissertation, Shandong University.Google Scholar
  12. Cho, S., Crenshaw, K. W., & McCall, L. (2013). Toward a field of intersectionality studies: Theory, applications, and praxis. Signs, 38(4), 785–810.Google Scholar
  13. Choi, S. Y. P., & Peng, Y. (2016). Masculine compromise: Migration, family, and gender in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cohen, D. (2006). From peasant to worker: Migration, masculinity, and the making of Mexican workers in the US. International Labor and Working-Class History, 69(1), 81–103.Google Scholar
  15. CosdoNet. (2009, December 30). Naxie xiwang waidiren chunjie hou buyao zai hui shanghai de ren lai huida ge wenti [Those who hope outsiders do not come back to Shanghai after the Spring Festival are welcomed to answer a question]. KDS. Retrieved October 8, 2011, from http://club.pchome.net/thread_1_15_4937900.html
  16. Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, K. (2008). Intersectionality as buzzword: A sociology of science perspective on what makes a feminist theory successful. Feminist Theory, 9(1), 67–85.Google Scholar
  18. Donato, K. M., Gabaccia, D., Holdaway, J., Manalansan, M., IV, & Pessar, P. R. (2006). A glass half full? Gender in migration studies 1. International Migration Review, 40(1), 3–26.Google Scholar
  19. Du. (2017). Factory boys, factory girls: Gender, family and migration of migrant workers in contemporary China (in Chinese). The Chinese University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  20. Franzway, S. (2000). Women working in a greedy institution: Commitment and emotional labour in the union movement. Gender, Work & Organization, 7(4), 258–268.Google Scholar
  21. Gaetano, A. M. (2004). Filial daughters, modern women. In A. M. Gaetano & T. Jacka (Eds.), On the move: Women and rural-to-urban migration in contemporary China (pp. 41–79). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gaetano, A. M., & Jacka, T. (2004). Introduction: Focusing on migrant women. In A. M. Gaetano & T. Jacka (Eds.), On the move: Women and rural-to-urban migration in contemporary China (pp. 1–40). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Goodman, D. S. G. (2014). Class in contemporary China. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  24. Guangzhou Bureau of Statistics. (2003a). Guangzhoushi fen xingbie de huji renkou zhuangkuang [Information on local households by gender in Guangzhou]. Retrieved June 20, 2015, from http://www.gzstats.gov.cn/l3.htm
  25. Guangzhou Bureau of Statistics. (2003b). Table 1.4: Guanzhoushi fen xingbie de wailai renkou hukou dengjidi zhuangkuang [Migrant households by gender in Guangzhou]. Retrieved June 20, 2015, from http://www.gzstats.gov.cn/pchb/dwcrk/200903/t20090313_7362.htm
  26. Hall, E. J. (1993). Smiling, deferring, and flirting: Doing gender by giving “good service”. Work and Occupations, 20(4), 452–471.Google Scholar
  27. Hanser, A. (2008). Service encounters: Class, gender, and the market for social distinction in urban China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. He, M. (2007). Laodong yu jiemei fenhua: Zhongguo nvxing nongmingong gean yanjiu [Labor and differentiation of sisterhood: A case study on female migrants in China]. Doctoral dissertation, Tsing Hua University.Google Scholar
  29. He, M. (2008). Fuwuye qingnian nvxing nongmingong richang gongzuo yanjiu [Research on daily work of young female migrants in the service sector]. Dangdai Qingnian Yanjiu [Contemporary Youth Research], 2, 12–20.Google Scholar
  30. Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Hu, S., & Luo, Y. (2001). Shehui shifan: Chengshi nongmingong de youminhua qingxiang [Social anomie: The tendency of migrant workers’ nomadisation in urban China]. Chengshi Wenti [Urban Problems], 2, 43–47.Google Scholar
  32. Huang, P., & Zhan, S. (2005). Internal migration in China: Linking it to development. In Regional conference on migration and development in Asia. China: Lanzhou. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/docs/network/hdr_net/China_internal_%20migration_development_poverty_alleviation.pdfGoogle Scholar
  33. Hughes, K. D., & Tadic, V. (1998). ‘Something to deal with’: Customer sexual harassment and women’s retail service work in Canada. Gender, Work & Organization, 5(4), 207–219.Google Scholar
  34. International Labour Organization. (2015). ILO global estimates on migrant workers. Retrieved August 18, 2018, from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/%2D%2D-dgreports/%2D%2D-dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_436343.pdf
  35. Jacka, T. (2006). Rural women in urban China: Gender, migration, and social change. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Jin, L. (2009). Zhongguo canyin nianjian: 2008–2009 [China restaurant yearbook: 2008–2009]. Beijing: Zhongguo Canyin Nianjian She [China Restaurant Yearbook Publishing House].Google Scholar
  37. Jin, L. (2011). Zhongguo canyin nianjian 2011 [Yearbook of China restaurant and catering industry in 2011]. Beijing: Zhongguo canyin nianjianshe [China Restaurant Yearbook Publishing House].Google Scholar
  38. Kilkey, M., Perrons, D., & Plomien, A. (2013). Gender, migration and domestic work: Masculinities, male labour and fathering in the UK and USA. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. Kim, J. (2015). From “country bumpkins” to “tough workers”: The pursuit of masculinity among male factory workers in China. Anthropological Quarterly, 88(1), 133–161.Google Scholar
  40. Lan, P. C. (2003). Working in a neon cage: Bodily labor of cosmetics saleswomen in Taiwan. Feminist Studies, 29(1), 21–45.Google Scholar
  41. Lau, M. (2010, December 15). Struggle for Foxconn girl who wanted to die. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com/article/733389/struggle-foxconn-girl-who-wanted-die
  42. Lee, C. K. (1998). Gender and the South China miracle. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lee, S., & Kleinman, A. (2003). Suicide as resistance in Chinese society. In Chinese society: Change, conflict, and resistance (pp. 294–313). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Leidner, R. (1993). Fast food, fast talk: Service work and the routinization of everyday life. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  45. Li, B. (2004). Urban social exclusion in transitional China. Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics, 82. Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/6309/
  46. Li, B., & Duda, M. (2010). Employers as landlords for rural-to-urban migrants in Chinese cities. Environment and Urbanization, 22(1), 13–31.Google Scholar
  47. Li, C. (2005). Dangdai zhongguo shehui de shengwang fenceng – Zhiye shengwang yu shehui jingji diwei zhishu celiang [Measuring the stratification of reputation in contemporary China – Indicators of occupational reputation and socio-economic status]. Shehuixue Yanjiu [Sociological Studies], 2(74), 74–102.Google Scholar
  48. Lin, X. (2013). Gender, modernity and male migrant workers in China: Becoming a “modern” man. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Liu, F. (2006). Qianxi woguo jingji zhuanxingqi de shouru fenpei tezheng [An analysis of income distribution in the context of economic transformation in China]. Shangye Shidai [Business Times], 11, 10–11.Google Scholar
  50. Liu, Y., He, S., Wu, F., & Webster, C. (2010). Urban villages under China’s rapid urbanization: Unregulated assets and transitional neighbourhoods. Habitat International, 34(2), 135–144.Google Scholar
  51. Lv, G., Wang, Z., Chen, G., Wang, Y., Tan, W., Liu, L., … Wang, H. (2010, June 21). Guanyu xinshengdai nongmingong wenti de yanjiu baogao [Report on the problems of new-generation rural migrant workers]. ACFTU. Retrieved from http://ghzcjg.acftu.org/template/12/file.jsp?cid=15&aid=562
  52. Mack, N., Woodsong, C., MacQueen, K. M., Guest, G., & Namey, E. (2005). Qualitative research methods: A data collector’s field guide. Family Health International.Google Scholar
  53. McCall, L. (2005). The complexity of intersectionality. Signs, 30(3), 1771–1800.Google Scholar
  54. McDowell, L. (2009). Working bodies: Interactive service employment and workplace identities. Chichester and Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  55. Meisner, M. J. (1999). Mao’s China and after: A history of the People’s Republic (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  56. NBS. (2001a, April 18). Diwuci renkou pucha gongbao-Shanghai [The fifth census bulletin-Shanghai]. Retrieved June 20, 2015, from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/tjgb/rkpcgb/dfrkpcgb/200203/t20020331_30355.html
  57. NBS. (2001b). Table 16.5: Xian’e yishang pifa lingshou maoyi canyinye jiben qingkuang (2000) [Basic conditions of retail, trade and catering services above designated size (2000)]. In China Statistical Yearbook 2001. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2001c/p1605c.htmGoogle Scholar
  58. NBS. (2010, March 19). 2009 nian Quanguo Nongmingong jiance diaocha baogao [National monitoring and investigating report on rural migrant workers in 2009]. Retrieved June 11, 2012, from http://www.stats.gov.cn/ztjc/ztfx/fxbg/201003/t20100319_16135.html
  59. NBS. (2013). Explanations on the indicators of accommodation, catering services and tourism. Retrieved June 20, 2015, from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zbjs/201310/t20131029_449426.html
  60. NBS. (2015, February 26). 2014 nian guomin jingji he shehui fazhan tongji gongbao [Report on the economic and social development in 2014 in China]. Retrieved February 27, 2015, from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201502/t20150226_685799.html
  61. NBS. (2017a). Table 4-1: Employment (2016). In China statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2017/html/EN0401.jpgGoogle Scholar
  62. NBS. (2017b). Table 6-23: Per capital disposable income of urban households by region. In China statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2017/html/EN0623.jpgGoogle Scholar
  63. NBS. (2017c). Table 6-29: Per capital disposable income of urban households by region. In China statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2017/html/EN0629.jpgGoogle Scholar
  64. NBS. (2017d). Table 1-2: Principal aggregate indicators on national economic and social development and growth rates. In China statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2017/html/EN0102.jpgGoogle Scholar
  65. NBS. (2017e). Table 17-5: Main indicators of enterprises above designated size of catering services by region (2016). In China statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2017/html/EN1705.jpgGoogle Scholar
  66. NBS. (2017f). Table 17-4: Main indicators of enterprises above designated size of catering services by registration (2016). In China statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2017/html/EN1704.jpgGoogle Scholar
  67. NBS. (2018). 2017 nian nongmingong jiance diaocha baogao [National monitoring and investigating report on rural migrant workers in 2017]. Retrieved August 10, 2018, from http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201804/t20180427_1596389.html
  68. Nixon, D. (2009). “I can’t put a smiley face on”: Working-class masculinity, emotional labour and service work in the “new economy”. Gender, Work & Organization, 16(3), 300–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. NPC. (1995). Labour law of the People’s Republic of China. Retrieved June 19, 2015, from http://www.china.org.cn/living_in_china/abc/2009-07/15/content_18140508.htm
  70. Osella, F., & Osella, C. (2000). Migration, money and masculinity in Kerala. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 6(1), 117–133.Google Scholar
  71. Otis, E. M. (2008). Beyond the industrial paradigm: Market-embedded labor and the gender organization of global service work in China. American Sociological Review, 73(1), 15–36.Google Scholar
  72. Otis, E. M. (2011). Markets and bodies: Women, service work, and the making of inequality in China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Pettinger, L. (2004). Brand culture and branded workers: Service work and aesthetic labour in fashion retail. Consumption, Markets and Culture, 7(2), 165–184.Google Scholar
  74. Pun, N. (1999). Becoming dagongmei (working girls): The politics of identity and difference in reform China. The China Journal, 42, 1–18.Google Scholar
  75. Pun, N. (2005). Made in China: Women factory workers in a global workplace. Durham and London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Pun, N. (2007). Gendering the dormitory labor system: Production, reproduction, and migrant labor in South China. Feminist Economics, 13(3–4), 239–258.Google Scholar
  77. Pun, N. (2012). Gender and class: Women’s working lives in a dormitory labor regime in China. International Labor and Working-Class History, 81, 178–181.Google Scholar
  78. Qiao, Z., Kanagaratnam, T., & Tessier, M. (2003). In style, dining in Shanghai. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House.Google Scholar
  79. Reuters. (2014, February 9). China corruption crackdown hits catering sector – State media. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/09/china-economy-catering-idUSL3N0LE04B20140209
  80. SBS. (2001). Table 3.2: Average wages of employees (2000). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2001. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/2001/tables%5C3_2.htmGoogle Scholar
  81. SBS. (2002). Table 4.3: Average wages of employees (2001). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2002. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/2002/tables/4_3.htmGoogle Scholar
  82. SBS. (2003). Table 4.7: Average wages of employees (2002). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2003. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/2003tjnj/tables/4_7.htm
  83. SBS. (2004). Table 4.3: Average wages of employees (2003). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2004. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nj.htm?d1=2004tjnj/C0403.htmGoogle Scholar
  84. SBS. (2005). Table 10.3: Average wages of employees (2004). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2005. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nj05.htm?d1=2005tjnj/C1003.htmGoogle Scholar
  85. SBS. (2006). Table 10.3: Average wages of employees (2005). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2006. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nj06.htm?d1=2006tjnj/C1003.htmGoogle Scholar
  86. SBS. (2007). Table 9.3: Average wages of employees (2006). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2007. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nj07.htm?d1=2007tjnj/C0903.htmGoogle Scholar
  87. SBS. (2008). Table 9.3: Average wages of employees (2007). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2008. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nj08.htm?d1=2008tjnj/C0903.htmGoogle Scholar
  88. SBS. (2009). Table 9.2: Average wages of employees (2008). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2009. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje09.htm?d1=2009tjnje/E0902.htmGoogle Scholar
  89. SBS. (2010). Table 8.2: Average wages of employees (2009). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2010. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje10.htm?d1=2010tjnje/E0802.htmGoogle Scholar
  90. SBS. (2011). Table 9.2: Average wages of employees (2010). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2011. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje11.htm?d1=2011tjnje/E0902.htmGoogle Scholar
  91. SBS. (2012). Table 9.2 Average wages of employees (2011). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2012. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje12.htm?d1=2012tjnje/E0902.htmGoogle Scholar
  92. SBS. (2013a). Table 3.7: Average wages of employees (2012). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2013. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje13.htm?d1=2013tjnje/E0307.htmGoogle Scholar
  93. SBS. (2014a, June 24). Benshi wailai nongmingong zhiye jiaoyu shangxu jiaqiang [The vocational education for migrant workers needs to be improved in Shanghai]. Retrieved September 15, 2018, from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/html/fxbg/201406/271057.html
  94. SBS. (2014b). Table 3.7: Average wages of employees (2013). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2014. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje14.htm?d1=2014tjnje/E0307.htmGoogle Scholar
  95. SBS. (2015). Table 3.6: Average wages of staff and workers (2014). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2014. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje15.htm?d1=2015tjnje/E0306.htmGoogle Scholar
  96. SBS. (2016). Table 3.6: Total wages of staff and workers (2015). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2014. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje16.htm?d1=2016tjnje/E0306.htmGoogle Scholar
  97. SBS. (2017a). Table 3-6: Average wages of staff and workers (2016). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje17.htm?d1=2017tjnje/E0306.htmGoogle Scholar
  98. SBS. (2017b). Table 4-4: Structure of gross domestic product (1978–2016). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje17.htm?d1=2017tjnje/E0404.htmGoogle Scholar
  99. SBS. (2017c). Table 3-1: Quantity of whole social employees in different sectors (2015–2016). In Shanghai statistical yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. Retrieved from http://www.stats-sh.gov.cn/tjnj/nje17.htm?d1=2017tjnje/E0301.htmGoogle Scholar
  100. Schein, L. (2000). Minority rules: The Miao and the feminine in China’s cultural politics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Shen, Y. (2015). Why does the government fail to improve the living conditions of migrant workers in Shanghai? Reflections on the policies and the implementations of public rental housing under neoliberalism. Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 2(1), 58–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Song, Q. (2009). Zhongguo chengshihua jincheng zhong de shidi nongmin wenti ji duice [The problem and solution to landless farmers in urbanising China]. Shehui Kexue Jikan [Social Science Journal], (2), 43–48.Google Scholar
  103. Sorg. (2014, August 10). Shanghai de shehui gaoceng he diceng doushi yp duo, tongyima [Outsiders are outnumbered in the upper class and the low class in Shanghai, agree?]. KDS. Retrieved from http://club.pchome.net/thread_1_15_8180553.html
  104. Su, X. (2007). Chongqing chengshihua jincheng zhong shidi nongmin jiuye wenti yanjiu [A study on landless farmers’ employment in urbanising Chongqing]. Master dissertation, Southwest University. Retrieved from http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10635-2007131814.htm
  105. Tang, J., Ling, Y., & Zhang, X. (Eds.). (2006). Shanghai yinshi fuwuye zhi [History of catering service industry in Shanghai]. Shanghai: Shanghai yinshua qi chang [The seventh Printing Factory in Shanghai].Google Scholar
  106. Tao, X. (2000). “Nongmingong” sixiang tedian jiqi jiaoyu chutan [The exploration of migrant workers’ thoughts and their education needs]. Qiushi [Truth Seeking], 2, 41–32.Google Scholar
  107. The State Council. (2014, July 30). Guowuyuan guanyu jinyibu tuijin huji zhidu gaige de yijian [Opinions on further promoting hukou reform issued by the State Council]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2014-07/30/content_8944.htm
  108. Tian, X., & Deng, Y. (2017). Organizational hierarchy, deprived masculinity, and confrontational practices: Men doing women’s jobs in a global factory. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 46(4), 464–489.Google Scholar
  109. Wang, C. (2005a). Nongmingong: Yige zhengzai jueqi de xingongren jieceng [Migrant workers: An emerging new working class]. Xuexi Yu Tansuo [Study and Exploration], 1, 38–43.Google Scholar
  110. Williams, C. (2003). Sky service: The demands of emotional labour in the airline industry. Gender, Work & Organization, 10(5), 513–550.Google Scholar
  111. Yagil, D. (2008). When the customer is wrong: A review of research on aggression and sexual harassment in service encounters. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(2), 141–152.Google Scholar
  112. Yan, H. (2008). New masters, new servants: Migration, development, and women workers in China. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yang, T., & Shi, G. (2006). Woguo shidi nongmin wenti yanjiu zongshu [Literature review on the problem of landless farmers]. Qiushi [Truth Seeking], 2006(9), 85–88.Google Scholar
  114. Yang, X. (2006). Shidi nongmin jiuye wenti yanjiu [Research on the issue of employment of landless farmers]. Lilun Xuekan [Theory Journal], (1), 45–46.Google Scholar
  115. Ye, R., & Wang, Y. (2001). Guoyou qiye neibu gongzi fenpei zhidu de xuanze yu chuangxin [The innovation of wage distribution system of state-owned enterprises]. Jiangxi Shehui Kexue [Jiangxi Social Sciences], (7), 150–154.Google Scholar
  116. Yewutai. (2009, January 8). Zaiguo bangeyue shanghai yao qingjing le panwang chunjie [Shanghai will be clean in half a month. Expecting the Spring Festival]. KDS. Retrieved from http://club.pchome.net/thread_1_15_3888156__.html
  117. Young, I. M. (2011). Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Zheng, T. (2006). Cool masculinity: Male clients’ sex consumption and business alliance in urban China’s sex industry. Journal of Contemporary China, 15(46), 161–182.Google Scholar
  119. Zhou, D., & Qin, H. (2004). Chengshi nongmingong yanjiu de huigu yu fansi [A review and reflection on the research on migrant workers in urban China]. Guangxi Youjiang Minzu Shizhuan Xuebao [Journal of Guangxi Youjiang Teachers College for Nationalities], 4, 6–10.Google Scholar
  120. Zhuge, Y. (2014, November 29). Beishida fabu “2014 zhongguo laodongli shichang baogao” [Beijing Normal University published the “Report on China’s Labour Market in 2014”]. Zhongguo Qingnian Bao [China Youth Daily], p. 03.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yang Shen
    • 1
  1. 1.Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations