Traction Performance of Tires

  • Yukio NakajimaEmail author


The traction performance of a tire is important to the safety of a vehicle. Traction models of a tire have been proposed for different road conditions, such as dry, wet, snowy, icy and muddy conditions. Simple analytical models for tire traction in braking and driving have been developed by extending the Fiala model of cornering performance. One is a model where the contact pressure distribution does not change under braking and driving forces and the sliding point between the adhesion and sliding regions can be determined using a simple equation. Another is a model where the contact pressure distribution changes under braking and driving forces and the sliding point between adhesion and sliding regions can be determined by iterative calculation. The hydroplaning phenomenon is analyzed employing the equilibrium of the hydrodynamic pressure and tire load, the two-dimensional Reynolds equation for squeezing water out of the tread block and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation where a tire is modeled by FEA and water is modeled using the finite volume method (FVM). The snow reaction is analyzed using an analytical model where the shear strength of snow is determined from the density of snow and conducting CFD simulation in an approach similar to that adopted for hydroplaning. The traction on ice is analyzed using a brush model with a friction model on ice where the friction coefficient is a function of the sliding velocity and other parameters of thermodynamics, and another brush model where the shear force distribution of a freely rolling tire is included. The traction on mud is analyzed using an analytical model where the tire deformation is classified as being in a rigid mode or elastic mode according to the difference between tire rigidity and load retention properties of mud, and CFD simulation is conducted in a manner similar to that adopted for hydroplaning. FEA has recently become popular in the design of the tire pattern for traction on wet, snowy and muddy road conditions.

Supplementary material


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, School of Advanced EngineeringKogakuin UniversityHachiojiJapan

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