Fabrication Techniques

  • Xiangang LuoEmail author


Different from well-established and highly refined fabrication processes in EO 1.0, the fabrication techniques in EO 2.0 are still imperfect, which need to be carefully investigated to form systematic processing methods. In this chapter, we first introduce the status of manufacturing techniques in EO 1.0, including the fabrication of refractive, reflective, and diffractive optical elements. The challenges of the manufacturing techniques for EO 1.0 are also summarized. Then, we will introduce the progresses of fabrication techniques in EO 2.0, such as the layered fabrication techniques, direct-writing techniques, and subwavelength structures fabrication techniques. The principles and implementations of these methods will be stated in detail. Some technological challenges in EO 2.0 are also discussed, including large-aperture manufacturing, conformal flexible manufacturing, and super-molecular and super-atom manufacturing.


Micro-/nanofabrication Optical fabrication 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Optical Technologies on Nano-Fabrication and Micro-Engineering, Institute of Optics and ElectronicsChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina

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