Biodiesel from Algae

  • Armen B. Avagyan
  • Bhaskar Singh


The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the benefits of algae for biodiesel production and sustainable development. The production of various types of biofuel greatly depends on feedstock availability and the implemented technological options. Microalgae biomass production accounts for 65–85% of the overall cost of biofuel manufacturing. Among the bioenergy feedstocks, areal lipid/biomass productivity for algae is one of the highest. This chapter provides a detailed analysis of microalgae and macroalgae cultivation and harvesting, with a description of the complexities involved in algal biofuel production.

The phototrophic microalgae pathway is not effective in terms of cost and environmental impacts, and can be used only for high-value purposes other than biofuel production unless significant technological interventions are put in place. Different approaches such as nitrogen or phosphate starvation/depletion, genetic modification, polyculture cultivation, and a biorefinery for cost reduction have been assessed but many uncertainties remain. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae is an alternative to photoautotrophic cultivation with the potential of improving the economic feasibility of algal lipid-based products.

Macroalgae cultivation may be done at off-shore, near-shore, or on-shore sites. Harvesting of wild seaweed and seagrass can have unfavorable environmental effects. The main barriers for off-shore growth of macroalgae are the high costs of biomass production (about $1/kg). Integrated aquaculture that involves macroalgae cultivation with finfish and mollusks facilitates better economic return.

Biodiesel production from algae usually involves the conversion of lipids from algae through indirect transesterification in two steps (2-TE). The first step typically is the dewatering of algae and drying of algal biomass, followed by the extraction of lipids that are then transesterified for the synthesis of biodiesel. Lipid extraction methods may include mechanical (press/expeller, bead milling, electroporation, salvation), physical (ultrasonic, microwave, pulsed electric field, lyophilization, thermal), chemical (solvents, soxhlet extraction, supercritical fluids), and biological (enzymes) applications. Direct transesterification (D-TE) is a one-step process, based on the catalytic conversion of lipids of algal biomass to FAMEs or biodiesel, which is 15–20% more efficient than the indirect process. An alternative to the solvent method is the use of supercritical water, methanol, ethanol, CO2, and their mixtures. The advantages of extraction using supercritical solvents include decreased waste generation, use of nontoxic or non-hazardous materials, and energy efficiency. However, D-TE has some obstacles, particularly the moisture content of algae, that hinder application of this method in commercial production. Biodiesel produced from microalgae has advanced combustion efficiency, cetane number, flash point, and inherent lubricity (about 66% greater than petrodiesel) but also has high viscosity and cloud and pour points, a lower energy content and oxidative stability, and slightly increased NOx emissions compared with petroleum-derived diesel. Therefore, several methods, such as in-cylinder controls, lean-NOx catalysts, and selective catalyst reduction, are aimed at reducing NOx emissions to acceptable levels.

Macroalgae can be converted into bio-oil, and its lipids can then be separated for biodiesel production. However, the high lipid content of some microalgae compared to that of macroalgae has centered attention on the use of microalgae in the production of biodiesel. Also, it remains doubtful that sufficient seaweed can be harvested to provide significant quantities of transport fuel and to overcome the technological barriers to energetic and commercial feasibility.


Algal cultivation technology Biodiesel Biomass-to-biodiesel Bioremediation Economics Environmental policy Climate change Macroalgae Microalgae Mixotrophic Heterotrophic and phototrophic growth Life cycle assessment Pollution Waste Wastewater 



anaerobic digestion


carbon capture and storage


equivalent carbon dioxide


dry weight


energy return on investment


fatty acid methyl ester


free fatty acid


greenhouse gases






high-rate algal pond


indirect land use change






life cycle assessment


land use, land use change, and forestry




oxides of nitrogen






polyunsaturated fatty acids




supercritical carbon dioxide


stirred tank bioreactor






total nitrogen


total solid


volatile organic compounds


volatile solids


weight percent


wet weight


  1. Abd El Baky HH, El Baroty GS (2017) Potential of macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a source feedstock for biodiesel production. Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric 8:199–204. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abomohra AE, El-Naggar AH, Baeshen AA (2018) Potential of macroalgae for biodiesel production: screening and evaluation studies. J Biosci Bioeng 125:231–237. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adnan H (2015) Market analysis. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
  4. Ag Marketing Resource Center (2017) Rapeseed.
  5. Ahmad F, Khan AU, Yasar A (2013) Transesterification of oil extracted from different species of algae for biodiesel production. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 7:358–364. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al hattab M, Ghaly A, Hammoud A (2015) Microalgae harvesting methods for industrial production of biodiesel: critical review and comparative analysis. J Fundam Renew Energy Appl 5:154. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson LG (2011) Effects of biodiesel fuel use on vehicle emissions. World Renewable Energy Congress. Sweden, 8–13 May.
  8. Araújo K, Mahajan D, Kerr R, da Silva M (2017) Global biofuels at the crossroads: an overview of technical, policy, and investment complexities in the sustainability of biofuel development. Agriculture 7:32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Arenas EG, Rodriguez Palacio MC, Juantorena AU, Fernando SELP, Sebastian J (2016) Microalgae as a potential source for biodiesel production: techniques, methods, and other challenges: microalgae for biodiesel production. Int J Energy Res 41:761–789. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Atabani AE, Silitonga AS, Badruddin IA, Mahlia TMI, Masjuki HH, Mekhilef S (2012) A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16:2070–2093. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Avagyan AB (2008a) A contribution to global sustainable development: inclusion of microalgae and their biomass in production and bio cycles. Clean Technol Environ Policy 10:313–317. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Avagyan A (2008b) Global prospects for microalgae production for biofuels and for the preservation of nature. Global Fuel Magazine, February 22–27.
  13. Avagyan AB (2008c) Microalgae production development global prospects and profitable technology wastewater purification by the use microalgae. Water World,
  14. Avagyan AB (2010a) New design & build biological system addressed to global environment management and sustainable development through including microalgae and their biomass in production and bio cycles. J Environ Prot 1:183–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Avagyan AB (2010b) New design of biopharmaceuticals through the use of microalgae addressed to global geopolitical and economic changes. Are you ready for the new development in biopharma? Pharmacol Pharm 1:33–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Avagyan AB (2011) Water global recourse management through the use of microalgae addressed to new design & build biological system and sustainable development. Clean Technol Environ Policy 13:431–445. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Avagyan AB (2012–2013) Theory of global sustainable development based on including of microalgae in bio and industrial cycles. New design and building of biological system. Amazon. ISBN-13: 978-1484000335, ISBN-10: 1484000331, ASIN: B00A7BIV9OGoogle Scholar
  18. Avagyan AB (2013) Theory of global sustainable development based on including of microalgae in bio and industrial cycles, climate change and waste management. J Sustain Bioenergy Syst 3:287–297. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Avagyan AB (2017) Environmental building policy by the use of microalgae and decreasing of risks for Canadian oil sand sector development. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:20241–20253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Avagyan AB (2018) Algae to energy and sustainable development. technologies, resources, economics and system analyses. New design of global environmental policy and live conserve industry. Amazon, ISBN-13: 978-1718722552, ISBN-10: 1718722559, 209p., Kindle Edition: ASIN: B07DFQBFFD
  21. Avagyan AB, Venediktov PS, Dobretsov GE, Rubin AB (1982) Interaction between the fluorescent probe 1-anilino-naphthalene-8-sulfonate and chloroplasts. Biofizika 27:415–419.
  22. Avagyan AB, Venediktov PS, Rubin AB (1984) Application of rodamin 6G as a fluorescent-probe for studying chloroplast membranes. Biofizica 29:978–983.,
  23. Avagyan AB, Arshakyan GG, Paronyan RV, Avagyan SA, Matevosyan MM, Gulumyan EA (1993) Feasibility of purification sorption effluent from ion exchange lysine production with uses Chlorella. Appl Biochem Microbiol (Russian) 29:723–727. (translated in Pergamon Press)Google Scholar
  24. Balser TB, Bjørn A, Sabina F, Hansen K, Lauridsen K, Petersen R, Thiry N (2015) Biodiesel production from microalgae. Aalborg University.
  25. Bank E (2017) How to make biofuel with algae. Sciencing.
  26. Barros AI, Gonçalves AL, Simões M, Pires JCM (2015) Harvesting techniques applied to microalgae: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 41:1489–1500. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Basosi R, Spinelli D, Fierro A, Jez S (2014) Mineral nitrogen fertilizers: environmental impact of production and use. In: Fertilizers: components, uses in agriculture and environmental impacts, pp 3–44.
  28. Ben-Amotz A, Tornabene TG, Thomas WH (2004) Chemical profile of selected species of microalgae with emphasis on lipid. J Phycol 21:72–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Benemann J (2013) Microalgae for biofuels and animal feeds. Energies 6:5869–5886. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Benemann JR, Tillett DM, Hubbard YSJ (1985) Chemical profiles of microalgae with emphasis on lipids. Georgia Institute of Technology.
  31. BETO (DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office) (2017) Pilot scale mixotrophic algae integrated biorefinery. Project peer review.
  32. Bharathiraja B, Chakravarthy M, Kumar RR, Yogendran D, Yuvaraj D, Jayamuthunagai J, Kumar RP, Palani S (2015) Aquatic biomass (algae) as a future feedstock for bio-refineries: a review on cultivation, processing and products. Renew Sust Energ Rev 47:634–653. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bilanovic D, Andargatchew A, Kroeger T, Shelef G (2009) Freshwater and marine microalgae sequestering of CO2 at different C and N concentrations – response surface methodology analysis. Energy Convers Manag 50:262–267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Borowitzka MA, Vonshak A (2017) Scaling up microalgal cultures to commercial scale. Eur J Phycol 52:407–418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Branco-Vieira M, Martin SS, Agurto C, Santos MA, Freitas MAV, Caetano NS (2017) Analyzing Phaeodactylum tricornutum lipid profile for biodiesel production. Energy Procedia 136:369–373. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brinckerhoff P (2012) Accelerating the uptake of carbon capture and storage (CCS): Industrial use of captured carbon dioxide. Global CCS Institute.
  37. Bugarski AD, Janisko SJ, Cauda EG, Noll JD, Mischler SE (2011) Diesel aerosols and gases in underground mines: guide to exposure assessment and control. Report of Investigations 9687. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2012–101.
  38. Carrington D (2017) Biofuels needed but some more polluting than fossil fuels, report warns. The Guardian.
  39. Cavonius LR, Carlsson NG, Undeland I (2014) Quantification of total fatty acids in microalgae: comparison of extraction and transesterification methods. Anal Bioanal Chem 406:7313–7322. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Chen Y, Xu C, Vaidyanathan S 2017. Microalgae: a robust “green bio-bridge” between energy and environment. Critical reviews in Biotechnology. Epub. DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2017.1355774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chen HW, Yang TS, Chen MJ, Chang YC, Lin CY, Wang EIC, Ho CL, Huang KM, Yu CC, Yang FL, Wu SH, Lu YC, Chao LK (2012) Application of power plant flue gas in a photobioreactor to grow Spirulina algae, and a bioactivity analysis of the algal water-soluble polysaccharides. Bioresour Technol 120:256–263. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chen H, Zhou D, Luo G, Zhang S, Chen J (2015) Macroalgae for biofuels production: progress and perspectives. Renew Sust Energ Rev 47:427–437. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Chisti Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25:294–306. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Chisti Y (2013) Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels. J Biotechnol 167:201–214. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Collotta M, Champagne P, Mabee W, Tomasoni G (2018) Wastewater and waste CO2 for sustainable biofuels from microalgae. Algal Res 29:12–21. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Costa JAV, de Morais MG (2011) The role of biochemical engineering in the production of biofuels from microalgae. Bioresour Technol 102:2–9. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Davis R, Markham J, Kinchin C, Grundl N, Tan ECD (2016) Process design and economics for the production of algal biomass: algal biomass production in open pond systems and processing through dewatering for downstream conversion. National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
  48. De Morais MG, Costa JAV (2007) Biofixation of carbon dioxide by Spirulina sp. and Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in a three-stage serial tubular photobioreactor. J Biotechnol 129:439–445. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dickinson S, Mientus M, Frey D, Amini-Hajibashi A, Ozturk S, Shaikh F, Sengupta D, Sengupta D, El-Halwagi MM (2017) A review of biodiesel production from microalgae. Clean Technol Environ Policy 19:637–668. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. DOE (2016) National algal biofuels technology review. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Bioenergy Technologies Office.
  51. EPA (2015) Green remediation best management practices: clean fuel & emission technologies for site cleanup.
  52. European Parliament (2015) Briefing: EU biofuels policy. Dealing with indirect land use change.
  53. Fawzy MA (2017) Fatty acid characterization and biodiesel production by the marine microalga Asteromonas gracilis: statistical optimization of medium for biomass and lipid enhancement. Mar Biotechnol (NY) 19:219–231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fernández AFG, González-López CV, Fernández SJM, Molina GE (2012) Conversion of CO2 into biomass by microalgae: how realistic a contribution may it be to significant CO2 removal? Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 96:577–586. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. FIS (2017) Microalgal biodiesel tests in Chile show much lower emissions.
  56. Friedemann A (2015) Dozens of reasons why the world doesn’t run on algal biofuels.
  57. Future of Working 2016. 7 advantages and disadvantages of algae biofuel.
  58. García JL, de Vicente M, Galán B (2017) Microalgae, old sustainable food and fashion nutraceuticals. Microb Biotechnol 10:1017–1024. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Ge S, Champagne P (2017) Cultivation of the marine macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum in municipal wastewater for nutrient recovery and biomass production. Environ Sci Technol 51:3558–3566. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gegg P, Wells V (2017) UK macro-algae biofuels: a strategic management review and future research agenda. J Mar Sci Eng 5:32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gerardo ML, Hende SVD, Vervaeren H, Coward T, Skill SC (2015) Harvesting of microalgae within a biorefinery approach: a review of the developments and case studies from pilot-plants. Algal Res 11:248–262. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gouveia L, Varela JCS, Barreira L (2016) Isolation of a euryhaline microalgal strain, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4, as a robust feedstock for biodiesel production. Sci Rep 6:35663. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Greene CH, Huntley ME, Archibald I, Gerber LN, Sills DL, Granados J, Beal CM, Walsh MJ (2017) Geoengineering, marine microalgae, and climate stabilization in the 21st century. Earths Future 5:278–284. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Guldhe A, Ansari FA, Singh B, Sharma B (2016) Extraction and processing of microalgal lipids. In: Algae biotechnology. green energy and technology. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gupta P, Lee SM, Choi HJ (2016) Integration of microalgal cultivation system for wastewater remediation and sustainable biomass production. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 32:139. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. GVR (Grand View Research) (2017) Algae biofuel market estimates & trend analysis by application (Transportation, Others), By Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Rest of World), By Country, And Segment Forecasts, 2018–2025Google Scholar
  67. Henson M (2013) Modeling the production of microalgal biodiesel. Washington University, St Louis.
  68. Herrenbauer M, Csögör Z, Schmidt K, Posten C (1999) Stirred draft tube photo-bioreactor for modelling of growth and product formation by microalgae. IFAC Proc 32:7563–7567. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Huang GH, Chen F, Wei D, Zhang XW, Chen G (2010) Biodiesel production by microalgal biotechnology. Appl Energy 87:38–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Huang Q, Jiang F, Wang L, Yang C (2017) Design of photobioreactors for mass cultivation of photosynthetic organisms. Engineering 3:318–329. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. IEA (2017) State of technology review – algae bioenergy. In: IEA bioenergy inter-task strategic project, Task 39.
  72. Jiang R, Ingle KN, Golberg A (2016) Macroalgae (seaweed) for liquid transportation biofuel production: what is next? Algal Res 14:48–57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Judd SJ, Al Momani FAO, Znad H, Al Ketife AMD (2017) The cost benefit of algal technology for combined CO2 mitigation and nutrient abatement. Renew Sust Energ Rev 71:379–387. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kadic E, Heindel TJ (2014) Stirred-tank bioreactors. In: An introduction to bioreactor hydrodynamics and gas-liquid mass transfer. ISBN:9781118104019.
  75. Kahn RS, Figueroa M, Creutzig F, Dubeux C, Hupe J, Kobayashi S (2012) Energy end-use: transport. In: Global energy assessment: toward a sustainable future, Chapter 9. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York. The International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis: Laxenburg, Austria, 2008: 575–648.
  76. Kim MG, Hwang HW, Nzioka AM, Kim YJ (2017) Hemijska Industrija. 71:167–174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kim BH, Choi JE, Cho K, Kang Z, Ramanan R, Moon DG, Kim HS (2018) Influence of water depth on microalgal production, biomass harvest, and energy consumption in high rate algal pond using municipal wastewater. J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:630–637. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kojima M (2016) Fossil fuel subsidy and pricing policies: recent developing country experience. Energy and extractives global practice group of World Bank. Policy Research Working Paper 7531.;sequence=1
  79. Kokkinos N, Lazaridou A, Stamatis N, Orfanidis S, Mitropoulos AC, Christoforidis A, Nikolaou N (2015) Biodiesel production from selected microalgae strains and determination of its properties and combustion specific characteristics. J Eng Sci Technol Rev 8:1–6.
  80. Kumar D, Singh B, Bauddh K, Korstad J (2015a) Bio-oil and biodiesel as biofuels derived from microalgal oil and their characterization by using instrumental techniques. In: Singh B et al (eds) Algae and environmental sustainability, Developments in applied phycology. Springer, New Delhi. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kumar RR, Rao PH, Arumugam M (2015b) Lipid extraction methods from microalgae: a comprehensive review. Front Energy Res 2:61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ky JI (2011) Algal biodiesel as an energy source? Yale Scientific Magazine.
  83. Lane (2012) RFS waiver could raise feed costs for livestock, dairy producers: new study. Biofuels Digest.
  84. Lardon L, Helias A, Sialve B, Steyer JP, Bernard O (2009) Life-cycle assessment of biodiesel production from microalgae. Environ Sci Technol 43:6475–6481. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lemões JS, Sobrinho RCMA, Farias SP, de Moura RR, Primel EG, Abreu PC, Martins AF, D’Oca MGM (2016) Sustainable production of biodiesel from microalgae by direct transesterification. Sustain Chem Phar 3:33–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Li Y, Horsman M, Wu N, Lan CQ, Dubois-Calero N (2008) Biofuels from microalgae. Biotechnol Prog 24:815–820. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Liu J, Chen F (2014) Biology and industrial applications of Сhlorella: advances and prospects. In: Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology. Google Scholar
  88. Liu X, Saydah B, Eranki P, Colos LM, Mitchel BG, Rhodes J, Clarens AF (2013) Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction. Bioresour Technol 148:163–171. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Louresa CCA, Amaralb MS, Da Rósb PCM, Zornb SMFE, de Castro HF, Silva MB (2018) Simultaneous esterification and transesterification of microbial oil from Chlorella minutissima by acid catalysis route: a comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Fuel 211:261–268. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lowrey J, Brooks MS, McGinn PJ (2015) Heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production in agricultural wastewaters and associated challenges: a critical review. J Appl Phycol 27:1485–1498. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lundquist TJ, Woertz IC, Quinn NWT, Benemann JR (2010) A realistic technology and engineering assessment of algae biofuel production. In: Report of Energy Biosciences Institute of University of California.
  92. Ma C, Wen H, Xing D, Pei X, Zhu J, Ren N, Liu B (2017) Molasses wastewater treatment and lipid production at low temperature conditions by a microalgal mutant Scenedesmus sp. Z-4. Biotechnol Biofuels 10:111. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Mansur D, Fitriady MA, Susilaningsih D, Simanungkalit SP (2017) Production of biodiesel from Coelastrella sp. microalgae. AIP Conference Proceedings 1904, 020068.
  94. Marcus Y (2018) Extraction by subcritical and supercritical water, methanol, ethanol and their mixtures. Separations 5:4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Meland M, Rebours C (2012). The Norwegian seaweed industry. Work Package 1&2. Bioforsk –Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research.
  96. Milledge JJ, Harvey PJ (2016) Potential process ‘hurdles’ in the use of macroalgae as feedstock for biofuel production in the British Isles. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 91:2221–2234. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Milledge JJ, Smith B, Dyer PW, Harvey P (2014) Macroalgae-derived biofuel: a review of methods of energy extraction from seaweed biomass. Energies 7:7194–7222. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mo W, Soh L, Werber JR, Elimelech M, Zimmerman JB (2015) Application of membrane dewatering for algal biofuel. Algal Res 11:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Moheimani N (2016) Algae for biofuels and energy. Dev Appl Phycol 5:153–163. Springer, Dordrecht. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mondal M, Goswami S, Ghosh A, Oinam G, Tiwari ON, Das P, Gayen K, Mandal MK, Halder GN (2017) Production of biodiesel from microalgae through biological carbon capture: a review. Biotechnology 7:99. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Naghdi GF, Thomas-Hall SR, Durairatnam R, Pratt S, Schenk PM (2014) Comparative effects of biomass pre-treatments for direct and indirect transesterification to enhance microalgal lipid recovery. Front Energy Res 2:57. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. NBB (U.S. National Biodiesel Board) (2016) Scientists agree, biodiesel a key to global carbon reduction.
  103. Neveux N, Magnusson M, Mata L, Whelan A, de Nays R, Paul NA (2016) The treatment of municipal wastewater by the macroalga Oedogonium sp. and its potential for the production of bio-crude. Algal Res 13:284–292. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Oliveira GA, Carissimi E, Monje-Ramírez I, Velasquez-Orta SB, Rodrigues RT, Ledesma MTO (2018) Comparison between coagulation-flocculation and ozone-flotation for Scenedesmus microalgal biomolecule recovery and nutrient removal from wastewater in a high-rate algal pond. Bioresour Technol 259:334–342. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Palani S (2015) Aquatic biomass (algae) as a future feedstock for bio-refineries: a review on cultivation, processing and products. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 47:634–653. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Pardo-Cárdenas Y, Herrera-Orozco I, González-Delgado ÁD, Kafarov V (2013) Environmental assessment of microalgae biodiesel production in Colombia: comparison of three oil extraction systems. CTF Cienc Tecnol Futuro 5:85–100. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Patel B, Guo M, Izadpanah A, Shah N, Hellgardt K (2016) A review on hydrothermal pre-treatment technologies and environmental profiles of algal biomass processing. Bioresour Technol 199:288–299. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pathak J, Rajneesh, Maurya PK, Singh SP, Häder DP, Sinha RP (2018) Cyanobacterial farming for environment friendly sustainable agriculture practices: innovations and perspectives. Front Environ Sci 28.
  109. Perez-Garcia O, Bashan Y (2015) Microalgal heterotrophic and mixotrophic culturing for bio-refining: from metabolic routes to techno-economics. In: Prokop A, Bajpai R, Zappi M (eds) Algal biorefineries. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 61–131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Phuoch VT, Yoshikawa K (2017) Effect of the storage condition of microalgae on hydrochar lipids and direct esterification-transesterification of hydrochar lipids for biodiesel production. AIMS Energy 5:39–53. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pienkos PT, Darzins A (2009) The promise and challenges of microalgal-derived biofuels. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 3:431–440. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Piloto-Rodríguez R, Sánchez-Borroto Y, Melo-Espinosa EA, Verhelst S (2017) Assessment of diesel engine performance when fueled with biodiesel from algae and microalgae: an overview. Renew Sust Energ Rev 69:833–842. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pisciotta JM, Zou Y, Baskakov IV (2010) Light-dependent electrogenic activity of cyanobacteria. PLoS One 5:e10821. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Rahman M (2015) Influences of biodiesel chemical compositions and physical properties on engine exhaust particle emissions. Queensland University of Technology.
  115. Rakesh S, Poonguzhali S, Jothibasu K (2017) Cultivation, harvesting and lipid extraction of microalgae for biodiesel production. Trends Biosci 10:6418–6423. ISDN: 0974-8431Google Scholar
  116. Rhea NA (2016) Evaluation of flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration for dewatering of algal biomass. University of Kentucky. Theses and dissertations – biosystems and agricultural engineering. 42.
  117. Rocca S, Agostini A, Giuntoli J, Marelli L (2015) Biofuels from algae: technology options, energy balance and GHG emissions. EU JRC.
  118. Ruiz HA, Rodrıguez-Jasso RM, Fernandes BD, Vicente AA, Teixeira JA (2013) Hydrothermal processing, as an alternative for upgrading agriculture residues and marine biomass according to the biorefinery concept: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 21:35–51. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Salama ES, Jeon BH, Kurade MB, Abou-Shanab RAI, Govindwar SP, Lee S, Yang IS, Lee DS (2016) Harvesting of freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris using acid mine drainage as a cost effective flocculent for biofuel production. Energy Convers Manag 121:105–112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Salama ES, Kurade MB, Abou-Shanab RAI, El-Dalatony MM, Yang IS, Min B, Jeon BH (2017) Recent progress in microalgal biomass production coupled with wastewater treatment for biofuel generation. Renew Sust Energ Rev 79:1189–1211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Samson P (2018) Evolution of the atmosphere: composition, structure and energy. Michigan University.
  122. Santanu B (2017) Evaluating sustainable economic development. Clean Technol Environ Policy 19:1815–1816. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Savchenko O, Xing J, Yang X, Gu Q, Shaheen M, Huang M, Yu X, Burrell R, Patra P, Chen J (2017) Algal cell response to pulsed waved stimulation and its application to increase algal lipid production. Sci Rep 7:42003. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. Scherer MD, de Oliveira AC, Magalhães Filho FC, Ugaya CML, Mariano AB, Vargas JVC (2017) Environmental study of producing microalgal biomass and bioremediation of cattle manure effluents by microalgae cultivation. Clean Technol Environ Policy 19:1745–1759. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schlagermann P, Göttlicher G, Dillschneider R, Rosello-Sastre R, Posten C (2012) Composition of algal oil and its potential as biofuel J Combustion, 14 p. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Scottish Government (2016) Effects of harvesting on ecological function. In: Wild seaweed harvesting: strategic environmental assessment. Environmental report.
  127. Shahadat M, Teng TT, Rafatullah M, Shaikh ZA, Sreekrishnan TR, Ali SW (2017) Bacterial bioflocculants: a review of recent advances and perspectives. Chem Eng J 328:1139–1152. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sharma A, Arya SK (2017) Hydrogen from algal biomass: a review of production process. Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 15:63–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Signor D, Cerri CEP, Conant R (2013) N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil. Environ Res Lett 8. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Siqueira SF, Francisco ÉC, Queiroz MI, de Menezes CR, Zepka LQ, Jacob-Lopes E 2016. Third generation biodiesel production from microalgae Phormidium autumnale. Braz J Chem Eng 33: 427–0433. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Skjanes K, Lindblad P, Muller J (2007) BioCO2: a multidisciplinary, biological approach using solar energy to capture CO2 while H2 and high value products. Biomol Eng 24:405–413. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sode S, Bruhn A, Balsby TJ, Larsen MM, Annemarie G, Rasmussen MB (2013) Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta). Bioresour Technol 146:426–435. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Solovchenko A, Khozin-Goldberg I (2013) High-CO2 tolerance in microalgae: possible mechanisms and implications for biotechnology and bioremediation. Biotechnol Lett 35:1745–1752. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Stauffer C, Choy M (2017) Chilean scientists produce biodiesel from microalgae. Reuters.
  135. Steen H (2009) Stortare. In: Kyst og havbruk. Institute of Marine Research. Chapter 2. 11:211–214.
  136. Stephens E, de Nys R, Ross IL, Hankamer B (2013) Algae fuels as an alternative to petroleum. J Phylogenet Evol Biol 4:148. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Alexander LV, Allen SK, Bindoff NL, Bréon FM, Church JA, Cubasch U, Emori S, Forster P, Friedlingstein P, Gillett N, Gregory JM, Hartmann DL, Jansen E, Kirtman B, Knutti R, Kumar KK, Lemke P, Marotzke J, Masson-Delmotte V, Meehl GA, Mokhov II, Piao S, Ramaswamy V, Randall D, Rhein M, Rojas M, Sabine C, Shindell D, Talley LD, Vaughan DG, Xie SP (2013) Technical summary. In: Climate change 2013: the physical science basis contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/New York.
  138. Subashchandrabose SR, Ramakrishnan B, Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Naidu R (2013) Mixotrophic cyanobacteria and microalgae as distinctive biological agents for organic pollutant degradation. Environ Int 51:59–72. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sutherland DL, Howard-Williams C, Turnbull MH, Broady P, Craggs RJ (2015) Enhancing microalgal photosynthesis and productivity in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production. Bioresour Technol 184:222–229. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Suutar M, Leskinen E, Fagerstedt K, Kuparinen J, Kuuppo P, Blomster J (2015) Macroalgae in biofuel production. Phycol Res 63:1–18. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Taher H, Al-Zuhair S, Al-Marzouqi AH, Haik Y, Farid MM (2011) A review of enzymatic transesterification of microalgal oil-based biodiesel using supercritical technology. Enzym Res 2011:468292. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Takisawa K, Kanemoto K, Kartikawati M, Kitamura Y (2014) Overview of biodiesel production from microalgae. J Dev Sustain Agric 9:120–128. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Torres A, Fermoso FG, Rincón B, Bartacek J, Borja R, Jeison D (2013) Challenges for cost-effective microalgae anaerobic digestion. In: Biodegradation engineering and technology. Google Scholar
  144. Troustle R, Marti D, Rosen S, Westcott P (2012) Why have food commodity prices risen again? USDA.
  145. U.S. Congress (2010) H.R. 4168. Algae-based Renewable Fuel Promotion Act of 2010 (111th)Google Scholar
  146. U.S. Department of Energy (2014) FY 2008/2009 progress report for fuels technologies. Energy efficiency and renewable energy office of vehicle technologies.
  147. U.S. Department of Energy (2016) 2016 billion-ton report: advancing domestic resources for a thriving bioeconomy, vol 1: economic availability of feedstocks. In: Langholtz, MH , Stokes BJ, Eaton LM (eds) ORNL/TM-2016/160. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge.
  148. Udom I, Zaribaf BH, Halfhide T, Gillie B, Dalrymple O, Zhang Q, Ergas SJ (2013) Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater. Bioresour Technol 139:101–106. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. UNEP (2017) The emissions gap report 2017. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi.
  150. Verawaty M, Melwita E, Apsari P, Mayumi M (2017) Cultivation strategy for freshwater macro- and micro-algae as biomass stock for lipid production. J Eng Technol Sci 49:261–274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Villegas GIR, Fiamengo M, Fernández FGA, Grima EM (2017) Outdoor production of microalgae biomass at pilot-scale in seawater using centrate as the nutrient source. Algal Res 25:538–548. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Waage-Nielsen E, Christie H, Rinde E (2003) Short-term dispersal of kelp fauna to cleared (kelp-harvested) areas. Hydrobiologia 503:77–91. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Walsh MJ, Van Doren LG, Sills DL, Archibald I, Beal Colin M, Lei XG, Huntley ME, Johnson Z, Greene CH (2016) Algal food and fuel coproduction can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while improving land and water-use efficiency. Environ Res Lett 11:114006. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wan M, Liu P, Xia J, Rosenberg JN, Oyler GA, Betenbaugh MJ, Nie Z, Qiu G (2011) The effect of mixotrophy on microalgal growth, lipid content, and expression levels of three pathway genes in Chlorella sorokiniana. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91:835–844. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wang Z, Wen X, Xu Y, Ding Y, Geng Y, Li Y (2018) Maximizing CO2 biofixation and lipid productivity of oleaginous microalga Graesiella sp. WBG1 via CO2-regulated pH in indoor and outdoor open reactors. Sci Total Environ 619-620:827–833. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. WEF (2018) Harnessing the fourth industrial revolution for life on land.
  157. Weidberg R (2011) Calculation of carbon footprint of potash at Dead Sea works, Israel. International Potash Institute.
  158. Wijffels RH, Barbosa MJ, Eppink MHM (2010) Microalgae for the production of bulk chemicals and biofuels. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 4:287–295. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. WWDR (2017) Wastewater: the untapped resource. United Nations World Water Assessment Programme, Paris.
  160. Xie X, Zhang T, Wang L, Huang Z (2017) Regional water footprints of potential biofuel production in China. Biotechnol Biofuels 10:95. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  161. Yang Q, Chen GQ (2013) Greenhouse gas emissions of corn: ethanol production in China. Ecol Model 252:176–184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Yang J, Xu M, Zhang X, Hu Q, Sommerfeld M, Chen Y (2011) Life-cycle analysis on biodiesel production from microalgae: water footprint and nutrients balance. Bioresour Technol 102:159–165. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Yun YS, Lee SB, Park JM, Lee CI, Yang JW (1997) Carbon dioxide fixation by algal cultivation using wastewater nutrients. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 69:451–455.<451::AID-JCTB733>3.0.CO;2-M CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Yuna JH, Chob DH, Leeb S, Heob J, Tran QG, Changa YK, Kimb HS (2018) Hybrid operation of photobioreactor and wastewater-fed open raceway ponds enhances the dominance of target algal species and algal biomass production. Algal Res 29:319–329. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Zhang WF, Dou ZX, He P, Ju XT, Powlson D, Chadwick D, Norse D, Lu YL, Zhang Y, Wu L, Chen XP, Cassman KG, Zhang FS (2013) New technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogenous fertilizer in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:8375–8380. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Zheng Y, Roberts M, Kelly J, Zhang N, Walker T (2015) Harvesting microalgae using the temperature-activated phase transition of thermoresponsive polymers. Algal Res 11:90–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zhu LD, Li ZH, Hiltunen E (2016a) Strategies for lipid production improvement in microalgae as a biodiesel feedstock. Biomed Res Int 2016:8792548. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. Zhu L, Yan C, Li Z (2016b) Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production. Bioresour Technol 220:629–636. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Zhu L, Shakeel SR, Martinkauppi B, Hiltunen E (2017) Using microalgae to produce liquid transportation biodiesel: what is next? Renew Sust Energ Rev 78:391–400. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Armen B. Avagyan
    • 1
  • Bhaskar Singh
    • 2
  1. 1.President and Sole FounderR&I Center of Photosynthesizing OrganismYerevanArmenia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental SciencesCentral University of JharkhandRanchiIndia

Personalised recommendations