Advertisement

Safety Evaluation of Electrolyzed Water

  • Donghong LiuEmail author
  • Ruiling Lv
Chapter

Abstract

Electrolyzed water (EW) has gained immense popularity over the last few decades as a novel broad-spectrum sanitizer. EW can be produced using tap water with table salt as the singular chemical additive. The application of EW is a sustainable and green concept and has several advantages over traditional cleaning systems including cost-effectiveness, ease of application, effective disinfection, on-the-spot production, and safety for human beings and the environment. This chapter was about the safety of the EW from the biological safety and chlorine residue two aspects, including the researches and results of oral toxicity test, the skin irritation test, the acute eye stimulation test, tub-chronic oral toxicity test and so on. EW had no effect on mouse growth as drinking water for 8 weeks and did not induce reverse mutations. Also, no effective residual chlorine after treated with EW was detected in samples. In a word, EW has no systemic effects and is safe as a sanitizer.

Keywords

Electrolyzed water (EW) Biological safety Residual chlorine Food additive 

References

  1. Annual report of Japan Food Analysis Center (2002) Residual chlorine residues in spinach treated with sodium hypochlorite (207 mg/kg) and hypochlorous acid (pH 6.5 effective chlorine concentration: 70.2 mg/kg) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. Ding T, Ge Z, Shi J et al (2015) Impact of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and ultrasound on microbial loads and quality of fresh fruits. LWT-Food Sci Technol 60(2):1195–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Faculty of biology oriented science and technology, Kinki University (2002) Effect of sterilized water on nutrient composition in foods (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  4. Food and drug safety evaluation center (1995a) Toxicity test of soft acidic water in mice (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  5. Food and drug safety evaluation center (1995b) Return mutation test using bacteria of soft acid water (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Food and drug safety evaluation center (1995c) Skin primary stimulation test of rabbit using soft acidic water (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  7. Forghani F, Rahman SME, Park MS et al (2013) Ultrasonication enhanced low concentration electrolyzed water efficacy on bacteria inactivation and shelf life extension on lettuce. Food Sci Biotechnol 22(1):131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hao JX, Li HY, Wan YF et al (2015) Combined effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) and alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW) on the microbial reduction of fresh-cut cilantro. Food Control 50:699–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang YR, Hung YC, Hsu SY et al (2008) Application of electrolyzed water in the food industry. Food Control 19(4):329–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Japan Food Research Institute (2006) Research on residual amount of trihalomethane (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. Japan Food Safety Commission Additives research group (2006) Additives evaluation: hypochlorous acid water (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  12. Koseki S, Itoh K (2001) Effect of electrolyzed acidic electrolyzed water on the quality of cut vegetables. J Food Sci Technol 48:365–369 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  13. Kubota A, Goda T, Tsuru T et al (2015) Efficacy and safety of strong acid electrolyzed water for peritoneal lavage to prevent surgical site infection in patients with perforated appendicitis. Surg Today 45(7):876–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Morita C, Nishida T, Ito K (2011) Biological toxicity of acid electrolyzed functional water: effect of oral administration on mouse digestive tract and changes in body weight. Arch Oral Biol 56(4):359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rahman SME, Khan I, Oh DH (2016) Electrolyzed water as a novel sanitizer in the food industry: current trends and future perspectives. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 15(3):471–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Saitoh Y, Harata Y, Mizuhashi F et al (2010) Biological safety of neutral-pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water upon mutagenicity, genotoxicity and subchronic oral toxicity. Toxicol Ind Health 26(4):203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Storkey C, Davies MJ, Pattison DI (2014) Reevaluation of the rate constants for the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with cysteine, methionine, and peptide derivatives using a new competition kinetic approach. Free Radical Biol Med 73:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Unicorn (2006) Trihalomethane analysis in hypochlorous acid treated cabbage (in Japanese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and Zhejiang University Press, Hangzhou 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, National Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and EquipmentZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory for Agro-Products Postharvest Handling of Ministry of AgricultureZhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food ProcessingHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Fuli Institute of Food Science, Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations