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Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Scavenging During Seed Germination of Halophytes

  • Aysha Rasheed
  • Sarwat Ghulam Rasool
  • Bilquees Gul
  • M. Ajmal Khan
  • Abdul HameedEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are excited or partially reduced forms of atmospheric oxygen, which are continuously produced during aerobic metabolism like many physiochemical processes operating throughout seeds’ life. ROS were previously known merely as cytotoxic molecules, but now it has been established that when tightly regulated to low levels they perform numerous beneficial functions in plants including many critical roles in seed physiology. This ROS homeostasis is achieved owing to the presence of a well-coordinated antioxidant system, which is composed of many enzymatic and nonenzymatic components. ROS reportedly facilitate seed germination via cell wall loosening, endosperm weakening, signaling, and/or decreasing abscisic acid levels. Most of the existing knowledge about ROS homeostasis and functions is based on the seeds of crops and model plants. This information about the seeds of non-crops such as halophytes is limited to just a few studies. Furthermore, mechanisms underlying ROS functions such as downstream targets, cross talk with other molecules, and alternative routes are still obscure. The objective of this article is to present an overview about (i) general mechanisms of ROS homeostasis in plants, (ii) ROS homeostasis in dry seeds, (iii) ROS metabolism in germinating seeds under optimal conditions, and (iv) ROS flux in germinating seeds under stress conditions with special emphasis on halophytes.

Keywords

Antioxidant defense system Halophyte Oxidative damage Salinity Seed germination Reactive oxygen species 

Abbreviations

OH

Hydroxyl radical

ABA

Abscisic acid

AOI

Active oxygen intermediates

AOS

Active oxygen species

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

AsA

Ascorbate

CAT

Catalase

DHAR

Dehydroascorbate reductase

GPOX

Guaiacol peroxidase

GPX

Glutathione peroxidase

GR

Glutathione reductase

GSH

Reduced glutathione

GSSG

Oxidized glutathione

GST

Glutathione S-transferases

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

MDAR

Monodehydroascorbate reductase

NaCl

Sodium chloride

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

O2

Superoxide radical

O2

Oxygen

1O2

Singlet oxygen

POD

Peroxidase

Prx

Thiol peroxidase type II peroxiredoxin

ROI

Reactive oxygen intermediates

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aysha Rasheed
    • 1
  • Sarwat Ghulam Rasool
    • 1
  • Bilquees Gul
    • 1
  • M. Ajmal Khan
    • 1
  • Abdul Hameed
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Sustainable Halophyte Utilization (ISHU)University of KarachiKarachiPakistan

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