Continuous Wave Operation at Room Temperature and Long Operating Life: Catch Up of the Japanese Firms

  • Hiroshi Shimizu
Part of the Advances in Japanese Business and Economics book series (AJBE, volume 21)


As we have seen thus far, the oscillation of the first laser was achieved by Maiman from Hughes in California in 1960. After that, various types of lasers were developed one after another. By 1962, four research groups in the U.S. achieved laser oscillation using the first laser diode almost simultaneously. However, this early laser diode employed pulse oscillation at liquid nitrogen temperature. If the laser could be operated only at liquid nitrogen temperature with pulse oscillation, the practical application of the laser would have remained seriously limited. Therefore, firms, universities, and research institutes competed to create a viable continuous wave operation of the laser diode at room temperature.


  1. Gertner, J. (2012). The idea factory: Bell labs and the great age of American innovation. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  2. Hecht, J. (2010). Short history of laser development. Optical Engineering, 49, 99–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Taleb, N. N. (2007). The Black Swan: The impact of the highly improbable. New York: Random House.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroshi Shimizu
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of CommerceWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations